- Kang Youwei
or K'ang Yu-weiborn March 19, 1858, Guangdong province, Chinadied March 31, 1927, Qingdao, ShandongChinese scholar, a key figure in the intellectual development of modern China.In 1895 Kang led hundreds of provincial graduates to protest the humiliating terms of China's treaty with Japan after the Sino-Japanese War and to petition for reforms to strengthen the nation. In 1898 the Qing emperor launched a reform program that included streamlining the government, strengthening the armed services, promoting local self-government, and opening Beijing University. The empress Cixi annulled the reforms and had six reform leaders executed, and Kang had to flee the country. In exile, he opposed revolution; instead, he favoured rebuilding China through science, technology, and industry. He returned in 1914 and participated in an abortive restoration of the emperor. His fears of a divided country led him to oppose the government of Sun Yat-sen in southern China. Kang is also known for his reappraisal of Confucius, whom he saw as a reformer.
* * *▪ Chinese scholarWade-Giles romanization K'ang Yu-wei , original name Kang Zuyi , courtesy name (zi) Guangxia , literary name (hao) Changsuborn March 19, 1858, Nanhai, Guangdong province, Chinadied March 21, 1927, Qingdao, Shandong provinceChinese scholar, a leader of the Reform Movement of 1898 (Hundred Days of Reform) and a key figure in the intellectual development of modern China. During the last years of the empire and the early years of the republic he sought to promote Confucianism as an antidote against “moral degeneration” and indiscriminate Westernization.Kang Youwei came from a scholarly gentry family in the district of Nanhai in Guangdong province. His teacher imbued him with the Confucian ideal of service to society, and his study of Buddhism impressed him with its spirit of compassion. He rebelled against convention, Neo-Confucian authoritarianism, and the demands of the civil service examination system. After reading about the outside world, he came to admire Western civilization. In the 1880s he began to conceive some of his basic ideas: ideas of historical progress, social equality, a world government, and the nature of the universe.Kang's first venture in social reform was in 1883, when he tried to abolish in his village the custom of foot-binding imposed on women. The decay of the Qing dynasty (1644–1911/12) prompted Kang and other concerned Chinese to urge fundamental institutional reforms. After his plans for the salvation of China—submitted in 1888 to the Qing court—were ignored, Kang set out to convert the educated class to his views and to arouse the people from their lethargy. In 1890 he opened a school in Guangzhou (Canton) (Canton) to teach new learning. Assisted by his students, among whom was Liang Qichao, who collaborated in his reform movement, he wrote The Forged Classics (1891), which reveals that the Confucian Classics held sacrosanct as bases of the state cult had been tampered with in the Han period (206 BC–AD 220). This book was followed by Confucius as a Reformer (1897), which expounded Kang's belief that Confucius was concerned with contemporary problems and stood for change and that the progress of mankind was inevitable. His interpretation of Confucian teachings and researches on ancient texts later inspired modern scholarship in the reappraisal of China's past, although critics have charged that he invoked Confucius to further his aims and was undermining the established way of life.When China was defeated by Japan in 1895, Kang mobilized hundreds of provincial graduates then in Beijing to protest against the humiliating peace terms and to petition for far-reaching reforms to strengthen the empire. To arouse the people to the dangers confronting China, he and his associates published newspapers and founded the Society for the Study of National Strengthening, the archetype of political parties in modern China. The society was suppressed in 1896.In 1898, when foreign powers threatened to partition China, Kang and his followers suggested an alliance with Britain and Japan to check Russia's advance and insisted that only institutional reforms could save China. He urged the clearing of channels for the expression of public opinion, the convocation of assemblies, and even the acceptance of popular sovereignty and the separation of state powers, and he organized the Society to Preserve the Nation to marshal support. Finally, he prevailed upon the Guangxu emperor to launch the reform program. Among the many measures that were promulgated were streamlining the government, strengthening the armed forces, creating new standards in the civil service examination system, developing commerce and industry, promoting local self-government, and opening Peking University and modern schools.The reform measures were annulled, however, when the dowager empress Cixi reasserted control. The emperor was placed in confinement, six of the reform leaders, including Kang's brother, were executed, and scores were arrested. Kang and Liang Qichao escaped to Japan. Unable to persuade the Japanese and British governments to intervene for the emperor, Kang went to Canada and founded the China Reform Association (Zhongguo Weixinhui; popularly known as the Save the Emperor Association and in 1907 renamed the Constitutional Party) to carry on his plans.After the failure of the revolts instigated by the reformers in 1900 in Anhui and Hubei provinces to restore the emperor, Kang resumed his writing in exile. His most significant work completed at this time was The Great Commonwealth (Datongshu), in which he envisaged a utopian world attainable through successive stages of human development, a world where the barriers of race, religion, state, class, sex, and family would be removed and where there would be an egalitarian, communal society under a universal government.Kang emerged from his retreat in 1903. To help the overseas Chinese and to unite them in a common effort, he and his colleagues founded an international business firm and established schools and newspapers. These activities, conducted in the United States, Mexico, Japan, and Southeast Asia, brought them into sharp competition with the Chinese revolutionists.During his exile, Kang traveled extensively. His stay in Europe and his study of Western history moved him to shun the violence and destructiveness of revolution as means of political change, and he proposed as an alternative course the promotion of science, technology, and industry to rebuild China.After his return in 1913 to a weak and troubled China, he was soon involved in the campaign to thwart the monarchical scheme of the Chinese statesman Yuan Shikai. In 1917, in line with his idea of a constitutional monarchy to bridge the transition to a truly democratic republic, he participated in the abortive restoration of the Qing ruler. In the years that followed, animated by the fear of a divided country, he opposed the South China government of the revolutionary leader Sun Yat-sen (1866–1925). He called for the preservation of the best of China's heritage and the establishment of a reformed Confucian church to provide the people with spiritual guidance. Partisan writers have criticized him for holding to these views. In his later years, he renewed his philosophic reflections, completing his last book, The Heavens, in which he blended astronomy with his own metaphysical musing, a year before his death at Qingdao in 1927.Besides prolific writings on the Chinese Classics, politics, and economics, Kang also left travel accounts and an anthology of his poems; he was also a famous calligrapher.Jung-pang LoAdditional ReadingJung-pang Lo, K'ang Yu-wei: A Biography and a Symposium (1967), contains a translation of the Chronological Autobiography of Kang, which narrates the events of his life to the end of 1898 and includes a discussion of his career and thought from 1898 to 1927. Kung-chuan Hsiao (Xiao Gongquan), A Modern China and a New World: K'ang Yu-Wei, Reformer and Utopian, 1858–1927 (1975), analyzes Kang's thought and writings, compares his proposed reforms with those of Sun Yat-sen, and includes a brief biographical sketch. Hao Chang, Chinese Intellectuals in Crisis (1987), studies Kang and three other significant contemporary intellectuals.
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Kang Youwei — Kang YouweiChinese NamePinyinKāng YǒuwéiWade GilesK ang Yu weiTraditional Chinese康有為Simplified Chinese康有为Family name Kang Courtesy name ( zi ) Guǎngshà¹ (廣廈) Courtesy names ( hao ) *Chángsù (長素) *Míngyí (明夷) *Gēngshēng (更生) or … Wikipedia
Kang Youwei — Kāng Yǒuwéi (chinesisch 康有為 / 康有为; * 19. März 1858 in der Nähe von Kanton, Provinz Kanton; † 31. März 1927) war ein führender chinesischer Reformer, Pädagoge und Philosoph … Deutsch Wikipedia
KANG YOUWEI — [K’ANG YEOU WEI] (1858 1927) L’exégèse des classiques confucéens, une mystique inspirée du bouddhisme et du taoïsme et l’influence de la pensée occidentale ont contribué à faire de ce fils d’une famille de fonctionnaires des environs de Canton,… … Encyclopédie Universelle
Kang Youwei — Kang Youwei. Kang Youwei o K ang Yu wei (19 de marzo de 1858, Foshan (Guangdong) 31 de marzo de 1927, Qingdao) fue un académico chino, una figura clave en el desarrollo intelectual de la moderna China. Destacó en el campo de la caligrafía y… … Wikipedia Español
Kang Youwei — Kang Youwei, chinesischer Gelehrter und sozialpolitischer Reformer, * Nanhai (bei Kanton) 19. 3. 1858, ✝ Tsingtau 31. 3. 1927; bemühte sich im ausgehenden 19. Jahrhundert um eine Erneuerung Chinas, das nach dem japanischen Vorbild der… … Universal-Lexikon
Kang Youwei — Portrait de Kang Youwei Kang Youwei, ou K ang You wei (chinois traditionnel : 康有為; chinois simplifié : 康有为), né en 1858 à proximité de Canton (Guangdong) et mort en 1927, était un lettré, calligraphe et théoricien politique chinois … Wikipédia en Français
Kang Youwei — o K ang Yeu wei (19 mar. 1858, provincia de Guangdong, China–31 mar. 1927, Qingdao, Shandong). Humanista chino, figura clave en el desarrollo intelectual de la China moderna. En 1895 encabezó a cientos de estudiantes de provincia para protestar… … Enciclopedia Universal
Youwei — Kāng Yǒuwéi (chin. 康有為 / 康有为; * 19. März 1858 in der Nähe von Kanton, Provinz Kanton; † 31. März 1927), war ein führender chinesischer Reformer, Pädagoge und Philosoph. Kang Youwei Biographie Dank seiner Abstammung aus e … Deutsch Wikipedia
Kang Tongbi — a.k.a. Kang Tung Pih (Chinese 康同壁 pinyin Kāng Tóngbì), 1887 1969, was the daughter of Kang Youwei, a Chinese reformer and political figure of the late Qing dynasty and early Republican era.Early lifeShe was born in 1887 from Kang Youwei s first… … Wikipedia
Kang — can mean:Place Names* Kang, Afghanistan * Kang, BotswanaPersonal Names* Kang Youwei, a reformist political figure from the late Qing dynasty. * Kang Tongbi, Kang Youwei s daughter, a social activist from the early Republic of China period. * Kang … Wikipedia