- John of Gaunt, duke of Lancaster
born March 1340, Ghentdied Feb. 3, 1399, London, Eng.English prince, the fourth son of Edward III.John's additional name, "Gaunt" (a corruption of the name of his birthplace, Ghent), was not used after he was three years old; it became the popularly accepted form of his name, however, through its use in William Shakespeare's play Richard II. John served as a commander in the Hundred Years' War against France, then returned to become an important influence in his father's last years as king and in the reign of his nephew Richard II. Through his first wife, John acquired the duchy of Lancaster in 1362, and he was the immediate ancestor of the three 15th-century monarchs of the house of Lancaster: Henry IV, Henry V, and Henry VI.
* * *▪ English princealso called (1342–62) earl of Richmond, or (from 1390) duc (duke) d'Aquitaineborn March 1340, Ghentdied Feb. 3, 1399, LondonEnglish prince, fourth but third surviving son of the English king Edward III and Philippa of Hainaut; he exercised a moderating influence in the political and constitutional struggles of the reign of his nephew Richard II. He was the immediate ancestor of the three 15th-century Lancastrian monarchs, Henry IV, V, and VI. The term Gaunt, a corruption of the name of his birthplace, Ghent, was never employed after he was three years old; it became the popularly accepted form of his name through its use in Shakespeare's play Richard II.Through his first wife, Blanche (d. 1369), John, in 1362, acquired the duchy of Lancaster and the vast Lancastrian estates in England and Wales. From 1367 to 1374 he served as a commander in the Hundred Years' War (1337–1453) against France. On his return he obtained the chief influence with his father, but he had serious opponents among a group of powerful prelates who aspired to hold state offices. He countered their hostility by forming a curious alliance with the religious reformer John Wycliffe. Despite John's extreme unpopularity, he maintained his position after the accession of his ten-year-old nephew, Richard II, in 1377, and from 1381 to 1386 he mediated between the King's party and the opposition group led by John's younger brother, Thomas Woodstock, earl of Gloucester.In 1386 John departed for Spain to pursue his claim to the kingship of Castile and Leon based upon his marriage to Constance of Castile in 1371. The expedition was a military failure. John renounced his claim in 1388, but he married his daughter, Catherine, to the young nobleman who eventually became King Henry III of Castile and Leon.Meanwhile, in England, war had nearly broken out between the followers of King Richard II and the followers of Gloucester. John returned in 1389 and resumed his role as peacemaker.His wife Constance died in 1394, and two years later he married his mistress, Catherine Swynford. In 1397 he obtained legitimization of the four children born to her before their marriage. This family, the Beauforts, played an important part in 15th-century politics. When John died in 1399, Richard II confiscated the Lancastrian estates, thereby preventing them from passing to John's son, Henry Bolingbroke. Henry then deposed Richard and in September 1399 ascended the throne as King Henry IV.Additional ReadingBiographies include Sydney Armitage-Smith, John of Gaunt (1904, reissued 1964), which must be read in conjunction with political histories of the period; and Anthony Goodman, John of Gaunt: The Exercise of Princely Power in Fourteenth Century Europe (1992). Simon Walker, The Lancastrian Affinity: 1361–1399 (1990), analyzes John of Gaunt's retinue to compare the power of medieval English nobility and gentry.
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John of Gaunt, 1. Duke of Lancaster — John of Gaunt, Duke of Lancaster – dt. Johann von Gent, Herzog von Lancaster, frz. Jean de Gand – (* 6. März 1340 in Gent; † 3. Februar 1399 in Leicester) entstammte dem ursprünglich französischem Adelsgeschlecht der Anjou Plantagenêt, das seit… … Deutsch Wikipedia
John of Gaunt, 1st Duke of Lancaster — This article is about the historical figure John of Gaunt. For places and organisations named after him, see John O Gaunt. John of Gaunt Duke of Lancaster; Duke of Aquitaine Successor … Wikipedia
John of Gaunt — John of Gaunt, Herzog von Lancaster John of Gaunt, Herzog von Lancaster, dt. Johann von Gent, frz. Jean de Gand (* 6. März 1340 in Gent; † 2. Februar 1399) war der dritte überlebende Sohn König Eduards III. von England und Philippa von Hainault.… … Deutsch Wikipedia
John of Gaunt — (duke of Lancaster) (1340–1399) John of Gaunt, so called after the mispronunciation of his birthplace, Ghent, was born in 1340 as the fourth son of King Edward III and Queen Philippa of England. As an infant Gaunt was declared earl of Richmond … Encyclopedia of medieval literature
Duke of Lancaster — (Herzog von Lancaster) ist ein englischer Adelstitel in der Peerage of England, benannt nach Honour, Schloss und Stadt von Lancaster in der Grafschaft Lancashire. Der Titel Duke of Lancaster erlosch zusammen mit dem letzten König aus dem Hause… … Deutsch Wikipedia
John Holland, 1st Duke of Exeter — (c. 1352 ndash; January 16, 1400), also Earl of Huntingdon, was an English nobleman, primarily remembered for helping cause the downfall of Thomas of Woodstock, 1st Duke of Gloucester and then for conspiring against Henry IV.He was the third son… … Wikipedia
John Holland, 2nd Duke of Exeter — KG (18 March 1395 ndash; 5 August 1447) was an English nobleman and military commander during the Hundred Years War.FamilyHe was the second son of John Holland, 1st Duke of Exeter and Elizabeth Plantagenet. His maternal grandparents were John of… … Wikipedia
John of Gaunt — John′ of Gaunt′ n. big (Duke of Lancaster) 1340–99, founder of the English royal house of Lancaster (son of Edward III) … From formal English to slang
John of Gaunt — [gônt] Duke of Lancaster 1340 99; founder of the house of Lancaster: son of Edward III … English World dictionary
JOHN OF GAUNT — Duke of Lancaster, third son of Edward III.; an ambitious man; vainly seized the crown of Castile; supported the Wycliffites against the clergy; married Blanche of Lancaster, and was made duke by Henry IV. (1340 1399) … The Nuttall Encyclopaedia