John of Gaunt, duke of Lancaster


John of Gaunt, duke of Lancaster
born March 1340, Ghent
died Feb. 3, 1399, London, Eng.

English prince, the fourth son of Edward III.

John's additional name, "Gaunt" (a corruption of the name of his birthplace, Ghent), was not used after he was three years old; it became the popularly accepted form of his name, however, through its use in William Shakespeare's play Richard II. John served as a commander in the Hundred Years' War against France, then returned to become an important influence in his father's last years as king and in the reign of his nephew Richard II. Through his first wife, John acquired the duchy of Lancaster in 1362, and he was the immediate ancestor of the three 15th-century monarchs of the house of Lancaster: Henry IV, Henry V, and Henry VI.

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▪ English prince
also called  (1342–62) earl of Richmond,  or  (from 1390) duc (duke) d'Aquitaine 
born March 1340, Ghent
died Feb. 3, 1399, London
 English prince, fourth but third surviving son of the English king Edward III and Philippa of Hainaut; he exercised a moderating influence in the political and constitutional struggles of the reign of his nephew Richard II. He was the immediate ancestor of the three 15th-century Lancastrian monarchs, Henry IV, V, and VI. The term Gaunt, a corruption of the name of his birthplace, Ghent, was never employed after he was three years old; it became the popularly accepted form of his name through its use in Shakespeare's play Richard II.

      Through his first wife, Blanche (d. 1369), John, in 1362, acquired the duchy of Lancaster and the vast Lancastrian estates in England and Wales. From 1367 to 1374 he served as a commander in the Hundred Years' War (1337–1453) against France. On his return he obtained the chief influence with his father, but he had serious opponents among a group of powerful prelates who aspired to hold state offices. He countered their hostility by forming a curious alliance with the religious reformer John Wycliffe. Despite John's extreme unpopularity, he maintained his position after the accession of his ten-year-old nephew, Richard II, in 1377, and from 1381 to 1386 he mediated between the King's party and the opposition group led by John's younger brother, Thomas Woodstock, earl of Gloucester.

      In 1386 John departed for Spain to pursue his claim to the kingship of Castile and Leon based upon his marriage to Constance of Castile in 1371. The expedition was a military failure. John renounced his claim in 1388, but he married his daughter, Catherine, to the young nobleman who eventually became King Henry III of Castile and Leon.

      Meanwhile, in England, war had nearly broken out between the followers of King Richard II and the followers of Gloucester. John returned in 1389 and resumed his role as peacemaker.

      His wife Constance died in 1394, and two years later he married his mistress, Catherine Swynford. In 1397 he obtained legitimization of the four children born to her before their marriage. This family, the Beauforts, played an important part in 15th-century politics. When John died in 1399, Richard II confiscated the Lancastrian estates, thereby preventing them from passing to John's son, Henry Bolingbroke. Henry then deposed Richard and in September 1399 ascended the throne as King Henry IV.

Additional Reading
Biographies include Sydney Armitage-Smith, John of Gaunt (1904, reissued 1964), which must be read in conjunction with political histories of the period; and Anthony Goodman, John of Gaunt: The Exercise of Princely Power in Fourteenth Century Europe (1992). Simon Walker, The Lancastrian Affinity: 1361–1399 (1990), analyzes John of Gaunt's retinue to compare the power of medieval English nobility and gentry.

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Universalium. 2010.

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