James Edward, the Old Pretender


James Edward, the Old Pretender
orig. James Francis Edward Stuart

born June 10, 1688, London, Eng.
died Jan. 1, 1766, Rome, Papal States

Claimant to the English and Scottish thrones.

Son of the exiled James II of England, he was raised in France as a Catholic. On the death of his father (1701), he was proclaimed king of England by the French king Louis XIV, but the English Parliament passed a bill of attainder against him. He served with the French army in the War of the Spanish Succession. In the Jacobite uprising (1715), James landed in Scotland, but within two months the uprising collapsed and he returned to France. He lived thereafter in Rome under the pope's patronage. He became known as the "Old Pretender" to distinguish him from his son, Charles Edward, the Young Pretender.

* * *

▪ claimant to English and Scottish thrones
in full  James Francis Edward Stuart  
born June 10, 1688, London, Eng.
died Jan. 1, 1766, Rome, Papal States [Italy]
 son of the deposed Roman Catholic monarch James II of England and claimant to the English and Scottish thrones. Styled James III of England and James VIII of Scotland by his supporters, he made several halfhearted efforts to gain his crown.

      At his birth it was widely and erroneously believed that he was an impostor who was slipped into the queen's bed in a warming pan in order to provide a successor to the Roman Catholic monarch. When the Protestant ruler William of Orange, stadtholder of Holland, deposed James II in 1688, the infant prince was taken to France, where his father set up a court in exile. Upon the death of James II in 1701, the French king Louis XIV proclaimed James king of England. James's adherence to Roman Catholicism caused the English Parliament to pass a bill of attainder against him in 1701.

      In 1708 the Pretender set out in French ships to invade Scotland, but he was driven away by the British before he could land. He distinguished himself fighting in the French army in the War of the Spanish Succession (1701–14). In 1714 he refused to accept suggestions by Robert Harley and Viscount Bolingbroke that he renounce Roman Catholicism and become an Anglican in order to be designated Queen Anne's heir to the throne of England.

      John Erskine, 6th Earl of Mar, raised a Jacobite (from the Latin equivalent of the name James) rebellion in Scotland in 1715, and the Pretender landed at Peterhead, Aberdeen, on December 22. By Feb. 10, 1716, the uprising had collapsed and James had returned to France. He passed the remainder of his life in or near Rome.

      In 1719 James married Maria Clementina Sobieska, a granddaughter of John III Sobieski of Poland. They produced two sons, Charles Edward, called the Young Pretender, and Henry, later the cardinal duke of York. Charles Edward precipitated one last, futile Jacobite rebellion in Britain in 1745.

* * *


Universalium. 2010.

Look at other dictionaries:

  • Charles Edward, the Young Pretender — orig. Charles Edward Louis Philip Casimir Stuart known as Bonnie Prince Charlie born Dec. 31, 1720, Rome died Jan. 31, 1788, Rome Claimant to the British throne. He was the son of the royal pretender James Edward and grandson of the exiled James… …   Universalium

  • James Edward Stuart — James Francis Edward Stuart James Francis Edward Stuart James Francis Edward Stuart, genannt the Old Pretender, (* 10. Juni 1688 im St. James’s Palace …   Deutsch Wikipedia

  • James Edward — biographical name 1688 1766 James Francis Edward Stuart; the Old Pretender; father of Charles Edward British prince …   New Collegiate Dictionary

  • Old Pretender — name for STUART2 James Francis Edward * * * a nickname for James Stuart, who claimed the right to be the British king. A pretender is a person who claims something, usually the right to be a king or queen, although not everybody agrees that the… …   Universalium

  • Old Pretender — Old Pre|tend|er, the →↑Stuart, James Edward …   Dictionary of contemporary English

  • Edward — /ed weuhrd/, n. 1. Prince of Wales and Duke of Cornwall ( The Black Prince ), 1330 76, English military leader (son of Edward III). 2. Lake, a lake in central Africa, between Uganda and the Democratic Republic of the Congo: a source of the Nile.… …   Universalium

  • James — /jaymz/, n. 1. Also called James the Great. one of the 12 apostles, the son of Zebedee and brother of the apostle John. Matt. 4:21. 2. the person identified in Gal. 1:19 as a brother of Jesus: probably the author of the Epistle of St. James. 3.… …   Universalium

  • old — oldness, n. /ohld/, adj., older, oldest or elder, eldest, n. adj. 1. far advanced in the years of one s or its life: an old man; an old horse; an old tree. 2. of or pertaining to the latter part of the life or term of existence of a person or… …   Universalium

  • The First Churchills — was a BBC miniseries from 1969 about the life of John Churchill, 1st Duke of Marlborough and his wife, Sarah Churchill, Duchess of Marlborough. It starred John Neville as the duke and Susan Hampshire as the duchess, was written and produced by… …   Wikipedia

  • James Francis Edward Stuart — James Francis Edward Prince of Wales James Francis Edward Stuart, The Old Pretender Jacobite pretender …   Wikipedia


Share the article and excerpts

Direct link
Do a right-click on the link above
and select “Copy Link”

We are using cookies for the best presentation of our site. Continuing to use this site, you agree with this.