Jackson, John Hughlings


Jackson, John Hughlings
born April 4, 1835, Green Hammerton, Yorkshire, Eng.
died Oct. 7, 1911, London

British neurologist.

He showed that most right-handed persons with aphasia had disease on the left side of the brain, confirming Paul Broca's findings. In 1863 he discovered Jacksonian epilepsy (spasms progressing through the body), tracing it to motor region damage. Electroencephalography has confirmed his 1873 definition of epilepsy as "a sudden, excessive, and rapid discharge" of electricity by brain cells.

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▪ British physician

born April 4, 1835, Green Hammerton, Yorkshire [now in North Yorkshire], Eng.
died Oct. 7, 1911, London
 British neurologist whose studies of epilepsy, speech defects, and nervous-system disorders arising from injury to the brain and spinal cord helped to define modern neurology.

      Jackson was physician to the National Hospital for the Paralyzed and Epileptic, London (1862–1906), and the London Hospital (1859–94). In 1864 he confirmed the discovery by Paul Broca, a French surgeon, that the speech centre of right-handed persons is located in the left cerebral hemisphere, and vice versa, by finding that, in most cases, he was able to associate aphasia (a speech disorder) in right-handed persons with disease of the left cerebral hemisphere.

      One of the first to state that abnormal mental states may result from structural brain damage, he discovered (1863) epileptic convulsions, now known as Jacksonian epilepsy, that progress through the body in a series of spasms, and he traced them (1875) to lesions of the motor region of the cerebral cortex, or outer layer of the brain. Jackson's epilepsy studies initiated the development of modern methods of clinical localization of brain lesions and the investigation of localized brain functions. His definition (1873) of epilepsy as “a sudden, excessive, and rapid discharge” of brain cells has been confirmed by electroencephalography, a method of recording electric currents generated in the brain. He also applied the principles of evolutionary biology to understanding the functions of the brain and central nervous system.

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Universalium. 2010.

Look at other dictionaries:

  • Jackson , John Hughlings — (1835–1911) British neurologist Jackson was born at Green Hammerton in England and educated at York Hospital and St. Bartholomew s Hospital, London. He received his MD from St. Andrews University in 1860. He served on the staff of the London… …   Scientists

  • Jackson, John Hughlings — (4 abr. 1835, Green Hammerton, Yorkshire, Inglaterra–7 oct. 1911, Londres). Neurólogo británico. Demostró que la mayoría de las personas diestras con afasia tenían afectado el lado izquierdo del cerebro, confirmando los hallazgos de Paul Broca.… …   Enciclopedia Universal

  • John Hughlings Jackson — (* 4. April 1835 in Green Hammerton, Yorkshire (jetzt North Yorkshire); † 7. Oktober 1911 in London) war ein englischer Neurologe. Von besonderer Bedeutung waren seine Forschungen auf den Gebieten der Epilepsie und der Aphasie …   Deutsch Wikipedia

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  • John Hughlings Jackson — Infobox Scientist name = John Hughlings Jackson box width = image width =260px caption = Bust of John Hughlings Jackson, resident in the Institute of Neurology, London birth date = March 4, 1835 birth place = Providence Green, Green Hammerton,… …   Wikipedia

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  • JACKSON (J. H.) — JACKSON JOHN HUGHLINGS (1835 1911) Né dans un canton du Yorkshire où son père avait une petite propriété, John Hughlings Jackson commença, à dix sept ans, ses études de médecine à York, dans l’école où professait Thomas Leycock. Auprès de lui, il …   Encyclopédie Universelle

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  • john — /jon/, n. Slang. 1. a toilet or bathroom. 2. (sometimes cap.) a fellow; guy. 3. (sometimes cap.) a prostitute s customer. [generic use of the proper name] * * * I known as John Lackland born Dec. 24, 1167, Oxford, Eng. died Oct. 18/19, 1216,… …   Universalium


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