Indochina wars


Indochina wars
20th-century conflicts in Vietnam, Laos, and Cambodia.

The first conflict (1946–54; often called the French Indochina War) involved France, which had ruled Vietnam as its colony (French Indochina), and the newly independent Democratic Republic of Vietnam under Ho Chi Minh; the war ended in Vietnamese victory in 1954. Vietnam was then divided into the communist-dominated north and the U.S.-supported south; war soon broke out between the two. North Vietnam won the war (the Vietnam War) despite heavy U.S. involvement, and the country was reunited in 1976. Cambodia experienced its own civil war between communists and noncommunists during that period, which was won by the communist Khmer Rouge in 1975. After several years of horrifying atrocities under Pol Pot, the Vietnamese invaded in 1979 and installed a puppet government. Fighting between the Khmer Rouge and the Vietnamese continued throughout the 1980s; Vietnam withdrew its troops by 1989. In 1993 UN-mediated elections established an interim government, and Cambodia's monarchy was reestablished. In Laos, North Vietnam's victory over South Vietnam brought the communist Pathet Lao into complete control in Laos.

* * *

▪ Asian history
      20th-century conflicts in Vietnam, Laos, and Cambodia, with the principal involvement of France (1946–54) and later the United States (beginning in the 1950s). The wars are often called the French Indochina War and the Vietnam War (q.v.), or the First and Second Indochina wars. The latter conflict ended in April 1975.

      In the latter half of the 19th century, Vietnam was gradually conquered by the French, who controlled it as a protectorate (1883–1939) and then as a possession (1939–45). Vietnamese rule did not return to the country until Sept. 2, 1945, when the Nationalist leader Ho Chi Minh proclaimed its independence. From 1946 to 1954, the French opposed independence, and Ho Chi Minh led guerrilla warfare against them in the first Indochina War that ended in the Vietnamese victory at Dien Bien Phu on May 7, 1954. An agreement was signed at Geneva on July 21, 1954, providing for a temporary division of the country, at the 17th parallel of latitude, between a communist-dominated north and a U.S.-supported south. Activities of procommunist rebels in South Vietnam led to heavy U.S. intervention in the mid-1960s and the Second Indochina War, or Vietnam War, which caused great destruction and loss of life. It came to a brief halt in 1973, when a cease-fire agreement was signed (January 27) and the remaining U.S. troops in South Vietnam began to be withdrawn. The war was soon resumed. In 1975 the South Vietnamese government collapsed and was replaced (April 30) by a regime dominated by the communists. On July 2, 1976, the two Vietnams were reunited as the Socialist Republic of Vietnam.

      Cambodia had been a French protectorate since 1863 and achieved independence in 1953 under the leadership of Prince Norodom Sihanouk (Norodom Sihanouk). Sihanouk adopted a position of neutrality in the Vietnam conflict and tacitly permitted Vietnamese communists to use sanctuaries inside Cambodia. On March 18, 1970, however, he was deposed in a coup by right-wing elements in the armed forces. On May 1, 1970, U.S. and South Vietnamese forces invaded Cambodia in an effort to destroy communist sanctuaries along the Cambodia-Vietnam border. Cambodia's new leaders by then faced a growing threat from Cambodian communists called the Khmer Rouge (“Red Khmers”). The U.S. launched a series of intensive bombing raids of rural areas of Cambodia until 1973 in an effort to disrupt Khmer Rouge activities; but, after a five-year civil war, the Cambodian capital, Phnom Penh, fell to the Khmer Rouge on April 17, 1975. Vietnamese forces invaded Cambodia in January 1979 and installed a puppet government soon afterward.

      Laos had been a French protectorate since the turn of the century. It achieved independence in a series of steps between 1946 and 1954. Control of the government changed hands between rightists and neutralists several times until 1962, when a coalition government between them and the Laotian communists called the Pathet Lao (“Lao Country”) was formed under the leadership of Prince Souvanna Phouma. The coalition continued to govern while communists and noncommunists vied for control of the outlying provinces of the country. After the fall of South Vietnam in 1975, the Pathet Lao, supported by the North Vietnamese, established control over the whole of Laos.

* * *


Universalium. 2010.

Look at other dictionaries:

  • Indochina Wars — The Indochina Wars (Vietnamese: Chiến tranh Đông Dương ) refers to wars of national liberation and attempts of the Vietnamese communists to assert regional hegemony that erupted in the wake of World War II, fought in Southeast Asia from 1947… …   Wikipedia

  • Wars of national liberation — National liberation movement redirects here. For specific groups known by that name, see National Liberation Movement. Flag of Mozambique, currently one of the poorest and least developed countries in the World, independent from Portugal since… …   Wikipedia

  • Indochina War timeline — 1840s 1890s Wars of French colonization in Indochina.1941 French colonial government collaborates with Japanese aggression in Southeast Asia. Japanese military forces occupy bases in Vietnam while French colonial government continues to govern.… …   Wikipedia

  • Indochina, French —    French indochina, or L union indochinoise, was the name given in 1887 to the countries of southeast Asia under the French protectorate and colonized by France. They comprised as first the three parts of Vietnam (Cochin China, Annam, and… …   France. A reference guide from Renaissance to the Present

  • First Indochina War — Infobox Military Conflict conflict=First Indochina War partof= caption=A French Foreign Legion unit patrols in a communist controlled area. date=December 19 1946 ndash; August 1 1954 place=French Indochina, mainly North Vietnam casus=The Haiphong …   Wikipedia

  • List of military conflicts spanning multiple wars — Early histories of a war typically describe the war as it was declared by the states involved. It is not uncommon for later historians to group together a series of wars over a long period or spread over several theaters as part of a broader… …   Wikipedia

  • Chickasaw Wars — 1711 map well illustrating the position of British aligned Chickasaws on the French Mississippi. Date …   Wikipedia

  • Mandingo Wars — v · …   Wikipedia

  • List of wars and anthropogenic disasters by death toll — See also: List of wars, List of battles and other violent events by death toll, and List of natural disasters by death toll This is a list of wars and anthropogenic disasters by death toll. It covers the lowest estimate of death as well as… …   Wikipedia

  • Vietnam War — Part of the Cold War and the Indochina Wars …   Wikipedia


Share the article and excerpts

Direct link
Do a right-click on the link above
and select “Copy Link”

We are using cookies for the best presentation of our site. Continuing to use this site, you agree with this.