Imam Bondjol


Imam Bondjol
born 1772, Kampung Tandjung Bunga, Sumatra
died Nov. 6, 1864, Manado, Celebes

Leader in a religious war that divided the Minangkabau people of Sumatra.

A convert to reformist Wahhābī Islam, known in Sumatra as the Padri sect, he established the fortified community of Bondjol, from which he took his name, as a centre from which to wage holy war. The secular government called on the Dutch to help, but the Dutch were preoccupied with the Java War (1825–30), and Imam Bondjol's forces expanded the area under their control. The Dutch eventually turned their attention to the Padris and defeated them; Imam Bondjol surrendered (1837), and the Minangkabau territory was added to the Dutch colonial holdings.

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▪ Minangkabau leader
also called  Muhammad Sahab,  Peto Sjarif,  Malim Basa,  Tuanku (Master) Muda,  Tuanku Imam , or  Tuanka Imam Bondjol 
born 1772, Kampung Tandjung Bunga, Sumatra [now in Indonesia]
died Nov. 6, 1864, Manado, Celebes

       Minangkabau religious leader, key member of the Padri faction in the religious Padri War, which divided the Minangkabau people of Sumatra in the 19th century.

      When in about 1803 three pilgrims inspired by the ideas of the puritan Wahhābī sect returned from Mecca and launched a campaign to reform and purify Islām as practiced by the Minangkabau, Imam Bondjol, then known as Tuanku Muda, was an early and enthusiastic convert. In his home valley of Alahanpandjang, he established the fortified community of Bondjol, from which he took his name, as a centre for waging a “holy war” to spread the Padri doctrines. Civil war followed, with Imam Bondjol providing political and military leadership for the Padri community. Two issues were at stake: the internal struggle between extremist religious reformers and traditional secular leaders and an attempt by Minangkabau leaders to wrest their trade from foreign control.

      In 1821 Dutch forces intervened, responding to a request for aid from the secular leaders but also seeking to cut off Minangkabau trade with the British at Benkulen (Bengkulu in modern Sumatra) and on Penang Island. The Java War (1825–30), however, diverted Dutch energies, and Imam Bondjol's forces expanded the area under their control. Their military success continued until 1831, when Dutch reinforcements turned the tide. In the following years the Dutch steadily cut into the Padri-controlled area and in 1837 captured Bondjol itself. Imam Bondjol escaped, but in October of that year he surrendered and was sent into exile. The fall of the Padris marked not only the end of the war but also the end of Minangkabau independence and the addition of their territory to the Dutch colonial holdings.

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Universalium. 2010.

Look at other dictionaries:

  • Imam Bondjol — (1772, Kampung Tandjung Bunga, Sumatra–6 nov. 1864, Manado, Célebes). Líder de una guerra religiosa que dividió al pueblo minangkabau de Sumatra. Convertido al islamismo reformista Wahhabi, conocido en Sumatra como la secta padri, fundó la… …   Enciclopedia Universal

  • БОНДЖОЛ ТУАНКУ — (Bondjol Tuanku) (1796 6. XI. 1864) духовный вождь (имам) ваххабитской секты падри во время антиголл. и антифеод. движения на о. Суматра (Индонезия) 1821 37. Организовал многолетнее сопротивление голл. отрядам, вдохновив своих последователей… …   Советская историческая энциклопедия

  • Padri War — ▪ Southeast Asian history       (1821–37), armed conflict in Minangkabau (Sumatra) between reformist Muslims, known as Padris, and local chieftains assisted by the Dutch. In the early 19th century the puritan Wahhābīyah sect of Islām spread to… …   Universalium

  • Minangkabau people — Minangkabau Minangkabau woman dressed in traditional clothes Total population circa 6 million Regions with significant populations …   Wikipedia

  • Indonesia — /in deuh nee zheuh, sheuh, zee euh, doh /, n. 1. See East Indies (def. 1). 2. Republic of. Formerly, Netherlands East Indies, Dutch East Indies. a republic in the Malay Archipelago consisting of 13,677 islands, including Sumatra, Java, Sulawesi,… …   Universalium

  • ПАДРИ ДВИЖЕНИЕ — антифеод. и антиголл. движение племен минангкабау на Зап. Суматре (Индонезия) в 1 й пол. 19 в. Разложение родового строя вызывало сопротивление родоплеменной массы новым, уже классовым отношениям. Идеологич. основой движения стал проникший на Зап …   Советская историческая энциклопедия


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