- Hull, Cordell
born Oct. 2, 1871, Overton county, Tenn., U.S.died July 23, 1955, Bethesda, Md.U.S. politician and diplomat.He served in the U.S. House of Representatives (1907–21, 1923–31), where he wrote the first income-tax bill (1913) and the inheritance-tax law (1916). He served briefly in the U.S. Senate (1931–33). As secretary of state under Pres. Franklin D. Roosevelt (1933–44), he worked for international agreements to reduce high tariff barriers. He helped to improve U.S. relations with Latin America through what came to be known as the Good Neighbor Policy. In East Asia he rejected a proposed "Japanese Monroe Doctrine" that would have given that country a free hand in China (1934). When the U.S. entered World War II, Hull began to plan an international postwar peacekeeping body. For this work, Roosevelt described him as the "father of the United Nations." He was awarded the Nobel Prize for Peace in 1945.
* * *▪ United States statesmanborn Oct. 2, 1871, Overton county, Tenn., U.S.died July 23, 1955, Bethesda, Md.U.S. secretary of state (1933–44) whose initiation of the reciprocal trade program to lower tariffs set in motion the mechanism for expanded world trade in the second half of the 20th century. In 1945 he received the Nobel Prize for Peace for his part in organizing the United Nations.As a young Tennessee attorney, Hull early identified with the Democratic Party. He served in the U.S. House of Representatives for 22 years (1907–21, 1923–31) and in the Senate (1931–33). Appointed secretary of state by President Franklin D. Roosevelt (Roosevelt, Franklin D.) at the beginning of the New Deal, he called for a reversal of high tariff barriers that had increasingly stultified U.S. foreign trade since the 19th century. He first won presidential support and public acclaim for such proposals at the inter-American Montevideo Conference (December 1933). He next succeeded in getting Congress to pass the Reciprocal Trade Agreements Act (March 1934), which set the pattern for tariff reduction on a most-favoured-nation basis and was a forerunner to the international General Agreement on Tariffs and Trade (GATT), begun in 1948.Throughout the 1930s Hull did much to improve the United States' relations with Latin America (Latin America, history of) by implementing what came to be known as the Good Neighbor Policy. At the Montevideo Pan-American Conference (1933) his self-effacing behaviour and acceptance of the principle of nonintervention in the internal affairs of other nations began to counteract the distrust built up through decades of Yankee imperialism in Latin America. He also attended the Pan-American Conference at Buenos Aires (1936) and a special foreign ministers' conference at Havana (1940). Because of the favourable climate of opinion that he had largely created, Hull successfully sponsored a united front of American republics against Axis aggression during World War II.In East Asia, he rejected a proposed “Japanese Monroe Doctrine” that would have given that country a free hand in China (1934). When Japan served notice later that year that it would not renew the naval-limitation treaties (due to expire in 1936), Hull announced a policy of maintenance of U.S. interests in the Pacific, continuing friendship with China, and military preparedness.With the outbreak of World War II, Hull and Roosevelt felt that efforts to maintain American neutrality would only encourage aggression by the Axis powers; they therefore decided to aid the Allies. In the crucial negotiations with Japan in the autumn of 1941, Hull stood firm for the rights of China, urging Japan to abandon its military conquests on the mainland.When the United States entered the war, Hull and his State Department colleagues began planning an international postwar peacekeeping body. At the Moscow Conference of Foreign Ministers (1943)—despite his frail health and advancing age—he obtained a four-nation pledge to continue wartime cooperation in a postwar world organization aimed at maintaining peace and security. For this work, Roosevelt described Hull as the “father of the United Nations,” and universal recognition of his key role came with the Nobel Prize. He resigned after the 1944 presidential election and wrote his Memoirs of Cordell Hull (1950).Additional ReadingJulius W. Pratt, Cordell Hull, 1933–44, 2 vol. (1964); and Irwin F. Gellman, Secret Affairs: Franklin Roosevelt, Cordell Hull, and Sumner Welles (1995), portray Hull's role as secretary of state. Jonathan G. Utley, Going to War with Japan, 1937–1941 (1985), provides an overview of Japanese-American relations during this period.
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Hull,Cordell — Hull, Cordell. 1871 1955. American public official who as secretary of state (1933 1944) laid the groundwork for the founding of the United Nations. He was awarded the 1945 Nobel Peace Prize. * * * … Universalium
Hull, Cordell — (1871 1955) Born near Byrdstown, Tennessee, Cordell Hull attended Cumberland Law School and was admitted to the bar in 1892. He practiced law until 1903 when he became a circuit judge. A Democrat, Hull was elected to the state legislature in… … Historical Dictionary of the Roosevelt–Truman Era
Hull, Cordell — 1871–1955 Hull was ROOSEVELT’s Secretary of State from 1933–44. He was a confirmed internationalist and played a large part in founding the United Nations. Before the USA declared war on Japan, Hull was involved in protracted negotiations with … Who’s Who in World War Two
Hull, Cordell — ► (1871 1955) Político estadounidense. Fue premio Nobel de la Paz en 1945 por su intervención en la creación de las Naciones Unidas. * * * (2 oct. 1871, cond. de Overton, Tenn., EE.UU.–23 jul. 1955, Bethesda, Md.). Político y diplomático… … Enciclopedia Universal
Cordell Hull — 47th United States Secretary of State In office March 4, 1933 – November 30, 1944 President Franklin D. Roosevelt Deputy … Wikipedia
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Cordell Hull — Saltar a navegación, búsqueda Cordell Hull Cordell Hull (Olympus, Tennessee, EUA 1871 Washington D.C. 1955 ) fue un abogado y político estadounidense que fue Secretario de Estado entre 1933 y 1944, y q … Wikipedia Español
Hull — Hull, Clark Leonard Hull, Cordell (Kingston upon Hull) ► C. de Gran Bretaña, en el E de Inglaterra, condado de Humberside, junto al mar del Norte; 246 700 h. Principal puerto pesquero del país. * * * (as used in expressions) Hull, Bobby Robert… … Enciclopedia Universal
Cordell Hull — Pour les articles homonymes, voir Hull. Cordell Hull Cordell Hull (2 octobre 1871 – 23 juillet … Wikipédia en Français