Hopkins, Sir Frederick Gowland


Hopkins, Sir Frederick Gowland
born June 20, 1861, Eastbourne, East Sussex, Eng.
died May 16, 1947, Cambridge, Cambridgeshire

British biochemist.

He discovered the amino acid tryptophan (1901) and showed that it and certain others are essential in the diet and cannot be made in the body from other substances. For his discovery of vitamins, he shared a 1929 Nobel Prize with Christiaan Eijkman. He demonstrated that working muscles accumulate lactic acid and isolated the tripeptide (see peptide) glutathione (1922) and showed that it is vital to utilization of oxygen by cells. He was knighted in 1925.

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▪ British biochemist
born June 20, 1861, Eastbourne, East Sussex, Eng.
died May 16, 1947, Cambridge

      British biochemist, who received (with Christiaan Eijkman (Eijkman, Christiaan)) the 1929 Nobel Prize for Physiology or Medicine for discovery of essential nutrient factors—now known as vitamins (vitamin)—needed in animal diets to maintain health.

      In 1901 Hopkins discovered the amino acid tryptophan, isolated it from protein, and eventually (1906–07) showed that it and certain other amino acids (known as essential amino acids) cannot be manufactured by certain animals from other nutrients and must be supplied in the diet. Noticing that rats failed to grow on a diet of artificial milk but grew rapidly when a small quantity of cow's milk was added to their daily ration, Hopkins realized that no animal can live on a mixture of pure protein, fat, and carbohydrate, even when mineral salts are added, and termed the missing factors—later called vitamins—“accessory substances.”

      In 1907 Hopkins and Sir Walter Fletcher laid the foundations for a modern understanding of the chemistry of muscular contraction when they demonstrated that working muscle accumulates lactic acid. Fifteen years later, Hopkins isolated from living tissue the tripeptide (three amino acids linked in sequence) glutathione and showed that it is vital to the utilization of oxygen by the cell.

      Hopkins spent most of his career at Cambridge University (1898–1943). He was knighted in 1925 and received many other honours, including the presidency of the Royal Society (1930) and the Order of Merit (1935).

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Universalium. 2010.

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  • Hopkins, Sir Frederick Gowland — (20 jun. 1861, Eastbourne, East Sussex, Inglaterra–16 may. 1947, Cambridge, Cambridgeshire). Bioquímico británico. Descubrió el aminoácidotriptófano (1901) y demostró que este y ciertos otros aminoácidos son esenciales en la dieta y no pueden ser …   Enciclopedia Universal

  • Sir Frederick Gowland Hopkins — noun English biochemist who did pioneering work that led to the discovery of vitamins (1861 1947) • Syn: ↑Hopkins • Instance Hypernyms: ↑biochemist …   Useful english dictionary

  • Frederick Gowland Hopkins — Sir Frederick Gowland Hopkins (* 20. Juni 1861 in Eastbourne, Sussex; † 16. Mai 1947 in Cambridge) war ein englischer Biochemiker und Mediziner. Hopkins gilt als Begründer der Vitaminforschung. In der Milch entdeckte er die Vitamine A und B. Bei… …   Deutsch Wikipedia

  • Frederick Gowland Hopkins — Sir Frederick Gowland Hopkins (* Eastbourne, Gran Bretaña, 20 de junio de 1861 Cambridge, 16 de mayo de 1947) fue un bioquímico británico. Inicialmente estudió Química en la Universidad de Londres y posteriormente Medicina en el Hospital Guy. Fue …   Wikipedia Español

  • Frederick Gowland Hopkins — Sir Frederick Gowland Hopkins (n. Eastbourne, Gran Bretaña, 20 de junio de 1861 Cambridge, 16 de mayo de 1947). Bioquímico británico. Inicialmente estudió Química en la Universidad de Londres y posteriormente …   Enciclopedia Universal

  • Frederick Gowland Hopkins — Infobox Scientist name = Frederick Gowland Hopkins caption = birth date = birth date|1861|6|20|mf=y birth place = Eastbourne, Sussex, England death date = death date and age|1947|5|16|1861|6|20 death place = Cambridge, England nationality =… …   Wikipedia

  • Frederick Gowland Hopkins — Pour les articles homonymes, voir Hopkins. Frederick Gowland Hopkins Naissance 20 juin 1861 Eastbourne, Sussex (Angleterre) Décès 16 mai  …   Wikipédia en Français

  • Medizinnobelpreis 1929: Christiaan Eijkman — Frederick Gowland Hopkins —   Der Niederländer wurde »für die Entdeckung des antineuritischen Vitamins«, der Brite »für die Entdeckung der wachstumsfördernden Vitamine« ausgezeichnet.    Biografien   Christiaan Eijkman, * Nijkerk (Niederlande) 11. 8. 1858, ✝ Utrecht… …   Universal-Lexikon

  • Hopkins — Sir Frederick Gowland …   Scientists


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