Hooker, Joseph


Hooker, Joseph
born Nov. 13, 1814, Hadley, Mass., U.S.
died Oct. 31, 1879, Garden City, N.Y.

U.S. Army officer.

He attended West Point and served in the Mexican War. Appointed brigadier general of volunteers at the outbreak of the American Civil War, he participated in major campaigns and became known as "Fighting Joe." He succeeded Ambrose E. Burnside as commander of the Army of the Potomac after the disastrous Battle of Fredericksburg. He reorganized the army but failed to defeat Robert E. Lee at the Battle of Chancellorsville, incurring heavy Union casualties. He resigned just before the Battle of Gettysburg but later helped secure the Union victory at the Battle of Chattanooga.

Joseph Hooker

By courtesy of the Library of Congress, Washington, D.C.

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▪ United States general
born Nov. 13, 1814, Hadley, Mass., U.S.
died Oct. 31, 1879, Garden City, N.Y.
 Union general in the American Civil War (1861–65) who successfully reorganized the Army of the Potomac in early 1863 but who thereafter earned a seesaw reputation for defeat and victory in battle.

      A West Point graduate and veteran of the Mexican War (1846–48), Hooker left his California home at the outbreak of the Civil War to serve as brigadier general of volunteers. In 1862 he participated in all the major Eastern campaigns and was dubbed “Fighting Joe” because of his vigorous leadership in the field. When General A.E. Burnside resigned command of the Army of the Potomac after the Union disaster at Fredericksburg (November–December), Hooker was appointed to succeed him.

 Immediately the new commander effected several much-needed organizational reforms and prepared to challenge the South at the Battle of Chancellorsville (Chancellorsville, Battle of) (May 1–4, 1863). His grave defects as a commanding officer became apparent when Confederate general Robert E. Lee (Lee, Robert E.), with fewer than half the number of troops, outmaneuvered him and caused a Union retreat. This defeat resulted in the loss of 17,000 Union soldiers. When Lee advanced into Pennsylvania in June, Hooker followed him closely until, rebuffed by Washington in his request for additional troops to meet the enemy at Gettysburg in July, he sensed his superiors' distrust and resigned his command on the eve of battle.

      Three months later Hooker was sent by rail in command of two corps of the Army of the Potomac to help relieve General W.S. Rosecrans, besieged at Chattanooga (Chattanooga, Battle of), Tenn. On Nov. 24, 1863, he won the “Battle Above the Clouds” on Lookout Mountain, clearing the way for the crowning Union victory on Missionary Ridge. Denied advancement during the Atlanta Campaign in 1864, he thereafter ceased to play any active part in the war.

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Universalium. 2010.

Look at other dictionaries:

  • Hooker,Joseph — Hook·er (ho͝okʹər), Joseph. Known as “Fighting Joe.” 1814 1879. American Union army officer who was defeated by Robert E. Lee at Chancellorsville (1863). * * * …   Universalium

  • Hooker, Joseph — (13 nov. 1814, Hadley, Mass., EE.UU.–31 oct. 1879, Garden City, N.Y.). Oficial de ejército estadounidense. Ingresó a West Point y prestó servicios en la guerra mexicano estadounidense. Al declararse la guerra de Secesión, ascendió a general de… …   Enciclopedia Universal

  • Joseph Dalton Hooker — Nacimiento 1817 Halesworth, Suffolk Fallecimient …   Wikipedia Español

  • Joseph Hooker (militar) — Joseph Hooker Retrato por Mathew Brady o Levin C. Handy General de División (Major General) del Ejército Regular Años de servicio …   Wikipedia Español

  • Hooker — ist der Nachname folgender Personen: Charles E. Hooker (1825–1914), US amerikanischer Politiker Earl Hooker (1929 oder 1930–1970), US amerikanischer Bluesmusiker Evelyn Hooker (1907–1996), US amerikanische Psychologin J. Murray Hooker (1873–1940) …   Deutsch Wikipedia

  • Joseph Dalton Hooker — Infobox Scientist name = Joseph Dalton Hooker box width = image size = 180px caption = Joseph Dalton Hooker birth date = birth date|1817|6|30|mf=y birth place = Halesworth, Suffolk death date = death date and age|1911|12|10|1817|6|30|df=y death… …   Wikipedia

  • Joseph Hooker — For the English botanist, see Joseph Dalton Hooker. For other people, see Joe Hooker (disambiguation). Joseph Hooker Portrait by …   Wikipedia

  • Joseph Hooker — „Fighting Joe“ Hooker Joseph Hooker (Spitzname Fighting Joe; * 13. November 1814 in Hadley, Massachusetts; † 31. Oktober 1879 in Garden City, New York) war ein General der Unionsarmee im amerikanischen Bürgerkrieg …   Deutsch Wikipedia

  • Joseph Dalton Hooker — Pour les articles homonymes, voir Hooker. Joseph Dalton Hooker Sir Joseph Dalton Hooker (30 juin 1817 …   Wikipédia en Français

  • Joseph Hooker — Pour les articles homonymes, voir Hooker. Joseph Hooker Joseph Hooker (1814 1879) est un officier de l US Army, qui servit durant la Guerre américano mexicaine av …   Wikipédia en Français


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