- Hokan languages
Hypothetical superfamily of North American Indian languages uniting a number of languages and language families of the western U.S. and Mexico.The Hokan hypothesis was first proposed by Roland B. Dixon and Alfred L. Kroeber in 1913 and refined by Edward Sapir; like the Penutian designation, it was an attempt to reduce the number of unrelated language families in one of the most linguistically heterogeneous areas of the world. Its core consisted of languages of aboriginal California and the Southwest, with outlying members from Sonora and Oaxaca in Mexico. Except for some Yuman languages (spoken in southern California, Arizona, and Baja California), all were either extinct or spoken almost exclusively by older adults by the beginning of the 21st century.
* * *▪ American Indian languagemajor group, or phylum, of American Indian languages; it includes three families of Mesoamerican Indian languages and 14 families of North American Indian languages. The Mesoamerican groups are Tequistlatec (two languages in Oaxaca, Mex.), Tlapanecan (one living language in Guerrero, Mex., and an extinct one in Nicaragua), and Jicaque (spoken in Honduras). The North American Indian families are Yuman (four languages), Pomo (six languages), Palaihnihan (two languages), Shastan (three languages), Yanan (two languages), Salinan (two languages), and Chumashan (six languages), plus Chimariko (extinct), Washoe, Seri, Esselen (extinct), Karok, Comecrudan (extinct), and Coahuiltecan (extinct), consisting of a single language each. The North American Hokan languages were once spoken in the southwestern United States from northern California to southern Texas and in northern Mexico.The Hokan languages are basically agglutinative in structure; that is, they frequently use affixes (such as prefixes and suffixes), as well as compound words, to form long words made up of several elements. Sometimes such words become so complex that a complete sentence or phrase may be expressed by one word; when this occurs, and when the units that compose such a word are “bound” forms (i.e., cannot be used except in conjunction with other elements within a word), the process has gone beyond agglutination and is called polysynthesis, a process characteristic of many American Indian languages. Some Hokan languages are extremely polysynthetic, among them the Yana language of northern California. The Yana word yābanaumawildjigummaha'nigi means “let us, each one [of us], move indeed to the west across [the creek].” It is composed of the following elements—yā “several people move,” banauma “everybody,” wil “across,” dji “to the west,” gumma “indeed,” ha' “let us,” and nigi “we.” Such word sentences are not uncommon in American Indian languages but are by no means universal. The Yana language is also of interest because it has two “dialects,” one used exclusively by males to males and the other used in speech to or by females.
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Hokan languages — Infobox Language family name=Hokan altname=controversial region=North America child1= Karúk child2=Shastan child3= Ch’imáriko child4= Yana child5=Palaihnihan child6= Washo child7= Esselen child8= Salinan child9=Pomoan child10=Yuman CochimíThe… … Wikipedia
Hokan — noun 1. a family of Amerindian languages spoken in California (Freq. 1) • Syn: ↑Hoka • Hypernyms: ↑Amerind, ↑Amerindian language, ↑American Indian language, ↑American Indian, ↑Indian … Useful english dictionary
Languages of the United States — Official language(s) none Main language(s) English 82.1%, Spanish 10.7%, other Indo European 3.8%, Asian … Wikipedia
Languages of Nicaragua — The official language of Nicaragua is Spanish; however, Nicaraguans on the Caribbean coast speak indigenous languages and also English. The communities located on the Caribbean coast also have access to education in their native… … Wikipedia
Hokan-Siouan — In linguistics, Hokan Siouan family of languages that includes various Native American languages. It includes the Hokan family.ee alsoClassification schemes for indigenous languages of the Americas … Wikipedia
Hokan — [ həʊkan] noun a group of American Indian languages of California and western Mexico. adjective relating to Hokan. Origin from Hokan hok about two + an … English new terms dictionary
Hokan — /hoh keuhn/, n. a proposed genetic grouping of American Indian languages comprising otherwise unclassified language families and isolates of California, the U.S. Southwest, and Mexico, including Yana, Pomo, Chumash, and Yuman. * * * … Universalium
Mesoamerican Indian languages — Introduction also called Middle American Indian languages group of languages spoken in an area of the aboriginal New World that includes central and southern Mexico, Guatemala, Belize, El Salvador, parts of Honduras and Nicaragua, and… … Universalium
Penutian languages — Infobox Language family name=Penutian altname=controversial region=North America child1=Chinookan child2=Plateau Penutian child3=Takelma child4=Kalapuyan child5=Alsean child6=Siuslaw child7=Coosan child8=Wintuan child9=Maiduan child10=Utian… … Wikipedia
Penutian languages — Hypothetical superfamily of North American Indian languages that unites a number of languages and language families mainly of the far western U.S. and Canada. The Penutian hypothesis was proposed by Roland B. Dixon and Alfred L. Kroeber in 1913… … Universalium