- Hohenzollern dynasty
Dynasty prominent in European history, chiefly as the ruling house of Brandenburg-Prussia (1415–1918) and of imperial Germany (1871–1918).The first recorded ancestor, Burchard I, was count of Zollern in the 11th century. Two main branches were formed: the Franconian line (including burgraves of Nürnberg, electors of Brandenburg, kings of Prussia, and German emperors) and the Swabian line (including counts of Zollern, princes of Hohenzollern-Sigmaringen, and princes and then kings of Romania). The Franconian branch became Lutheran at the Reformation but turned to Calvinism in 1613 and acquired considerable territory in the 15th–17th centuries. Both Prussian and German sovereignties were lost at the end of World War I (1914–18). The Swabian line remained Catholic at the Reformation and ruled in Romania until 1947. The Hohenzollern monarchs included Frederick William I, Frederick II (the Great), Frederick William II, and Frederick William III of Prussia; William I and William II of Germany; and Carol I and Carol II of Romania.
* * *▪ European dynastydynasty prominent in European history, chiefly as the ruling house of Brandenburg-Prussia (1415–1918) and of imperial Germany (1871–1918). It takes its name from a castle in Swabia first mentioned as Zolorin or Zolre (the modern Hohenzollern, south of Tübingen, in the Land Baden-Württemberg). Burchard I, the first recorded ancestor of the dynasty, was count of Zollern in the 11th century. In the third and fourth generation from him two lines were formed: that of Zollern-Hohenberg, extinct in all its branches by 1486, and that of the burgraves of Nürnberg, from which all the branches surviving into modern times derived.Frederick III of Zollern (d. c. 1200), husband of the heiress of the former burgraves of Nürnberg, himself became burgrave in 1192 as Frederick I. Between his two sons, Conrad and Frederick, the first dynastic division of lasting consequence took place: that between the line later known as Franconian (burgraves of Nürnberg, later electors of Brandenburg, kings in Prussia, kings of Prussia, German emperors) and the Swabian line (counts of Zollern, of Hohenzollern, of Zollern-Schalksburg, of Haigerloch, etc.; princes of Hohenzollern-Hechingen, princes of Hohenzollern-Sigmaringen, princes of Hohenzollern, princes and then kings of Romania). There is some doubt about the seniority of the Franconian and of the Swabian lines: was Conrad I, burgrave of Nürnberg, the elder son, or was Frederick IV of Zollern?The Franconian acquisitions of the burgraves of Nürnberg began when Frederick III (d. 1297) got possession of Bayreuth, and his descendants acquired Ansbach and Kulmbach. For a long time this group of territories was more important to the dynasty than Brandenburg. Then Frederick VI was appointed margrave of Brandenburg in 1411 and elector, as Frederick I, in 1415.For the history of the rise of the Brandenburg Hohenzollerns (who became Lutheran at the Reformation but turned to Calvinism in 1613), including the account of their considerable acquisitions of territory in the 15th, 16th and 17th centuries, see Brandenburg. One of the most significant acquisitions was made by a junior member of the house in 1525—namely, the duchy of Prussia (see Prussia).In 1701 the elector Frederick III (Frederick I) of Brandenburg secured from the Holy Roman emperor Leopold I the title “king in Prussia.” The change to “king of Prussia” was not formally recognized until 1772, when Frederick the Great obtained it. The kings of Prussia retained their title of electors of Brandenburg until the dissolution of the Holy Roman Empire in 1806. In 1871 William I of Prussia became German emperor. Both Prussian and German sovereignties were lost in 1918, at the end of World War I.The Swabian line remained Catholic at the Reformation. It was in this line that the name Hohenzollern, as distinct from Zollern, first came into use—with Frederick IX. The Hechingen and Sigmaringen branches attained princely rank in 1623 but surrendered their sovereign status to Prussia in 1849. With the extinction of the Hechingen branch 20 years later, Charles Anton, head of the Sigmaringen, received the style prince (Fürst) von Hohenzollern, without territorial qualification. His second son, Charles, became prince of Romania in 1866 and king as Carol I in 1881; the candidature of the elder son, Leopold, for the Spanish throne had been one of the immediate causes of the Franco-German War of 1870–71. Leopold's son, Ferdinand, succeeded his uncle in Romania in 1914, where his descendants, who were brought up in the Orthodox faith, ruled until 1947.
* * *
Look at other dictionaries:
Hohenzollern Dynasty — The ruling house of Brandenburg Prussia from 1415 to 1918 and of imperial Germany from 1871 to 1918. Originating in southwestern of Germany and traceable back to the eleventh century, the family took its name from the German word Zöller ,… … Encyclopedia of the Age of Imperialism, 1800–1914
Hohenzollern (disambiguation) — Hohenzollern may refer to: *House of Hohenzollern, German dynasty which ruled Brandenburg Prussia, Germany, and Romania, among other states *House of Hohenzollern Sigmaringen, a cadet branch of the Hohenzollern dynasty *House of Hohenzollern… … Wikipedia
Dynasty — A dynasty is a succession of rulers who belong to the same family for generations. A dynasty is also often called a house , e.g. the House of Saud or House of Habsburg . In the histories of Europe, much of Asia and some of Africa, ruling and… … Wikipedia
Hohenzollern-Sigmaringen — Infobox Former Country native name = Fürstentum Hohenzollern Sigmaringen conventional long name = Principality of Hohenzollern Sigmaringen common name = Hohenzollern Sigmaringen continent = Europe region = Swabia country = Germany era = Middle… … Wikipedia
Hohenzollern-Hechingen — Infobox Former Country native name = conventional long name = Hohenzollern Hechingen common name = Hohenzollern Hechingen continent = Europe region = Swabia country = Germany era = Middle Ages status = Vassal empire = Holy Roman Empire government … Wikipedia
dynasty — dynastic /duy nas tik/; Brit. also /di nas tik/, dynastical, adj. dynastically, adv. /duy neuh stee/; Brit. also /din euh stee/, n., pl. dynasties. 1. a sequence of rulers from the same family, stock, or group: the Ming dynasty … Universalium
Hohenzollern — /hoh euhn zol euhrn/; Ger. /hoh euhn tsawl euhrddn/, n. a member of the royal family that ruled in Rumania from 1866 to 1947, in Prussia from 1701 to 1918, and in the German Empire from 1871 to 1918. [1890 95] * * * (as used in expressions)… … Universalium
Hohenzollern — noun a German noble family that ruled Brandenburg and Prussia • Hypernyms: ↑dynasty, ↑royalty, ↑royal family, ↑royal line, ↑royal house • Member Meronyms: ↑Frederick I, ↑Frederick William … Useful english dictionary
House of Hohenzollern — Hohenzollern redirects here. For other uses, see Hohenzollern (disambiguation). House of Hohenzollern Country Germany, Romania Ancestral house Burc … Wikipedia
House of Hohenzollern-Haigerloch — Infobox Former Country native name = Grafschaft Hohenzollern Haigerloch conventional long name = County of Hohenzollern Haigerloch common name = Hohenzollern Haigerloch| continent = Europe region = Swabia country = Germany era = Middle Ages… … Wikipedia