Hincmar of Reims


Hincmar of Reims
born с 806, northern France?
died Dec. 21, 882, Épernay, near Reims

French archbishop and theologian.

The most influential churchman of the 9th century, he advised the Carolingian emperors Louis I and Charles II and was chosen archbishop of Reims in 845. He maintained his influence despite the hostility of Lothar I, whose divorce Hincmar staunchly opposed, and secured the succession of Charles to the throne of Lotharingia. Hincmar also rallied the church to the defense of Charles when Louis the German invaded the kingdom in 858. His theological writings included treatises on predestination, in which he argued that God does not damn a sinner in advance, and a defense of the Christian opposition to divorce.

* * *

▪ French theologian
born c. 806, northern France?
died Dec. 21, 882, Épernay, near Reims

      archbishop, canon lawyer, and theologian, the most influential political counselor and churchman of the Carolingian era (9th century).

      Educated at the abbey of Saint-Denis, Paris, Hincmar was named a royal consultant to King Louis I the Pious in 834. When King Charles the Bald of France continued him in that office (840), Hincmar incurred the hostility of Emperor Lothar I, Charles's rival. Chosen archbishop of Reims in 845, Hincmar began an extensive reorganization of his diocese but was accused by Lothar of impropriety for having nullified the priestly ordinations of his predecessor. The synod of Soissons (853) decided in Hincmar's favour, and in 855 he received the approbation of Pope Benedict III. Controversy with the imperial family sharpened in 860, when Hincmar, responding to the attempt of Lothar II of Lorraine to repudiate his wife, wrote De divortio Lotharii et Teutbergae (“On the Divorce of Lothar and Teutberga”), the fullest apology to that time for Christian opposition to divorce.

      In 863 he deposed Rothad, bishop of Soissons, for contesting his authority but was reversed by Pope Nicholas I the Great. He did procure, however, the condemnation of his nephew, Bishop Hincmar of Laon, in a similar dispute. On the entire matter of his ecclesiastical jurisdiction, he wrote the noted Opusculum LV capitulorum (“A Brief Tract of 55 Chapters”). After Lothar died (869), he secured the succession of Charles the Bald, whom he himself crowned, despite the objections of Pope Adrian II. In 876 he again opposed the pope, whose appointment of a papal legate for Germany and Gaul he regarded as an interference with his administrative rights. He died while fleeing a Norman raid.

      Hincmar's fame also derives from his theological controversy with Gottschalk, monk of Orbais, on the doctrine of predestination. Hincmar in Ad reclusos et simplices (“To the Cloistered and Simple”) upheld the traditional distinction between divine foreknowledge and predestination and maintained that God does not damn a sinner in advance. Because of widespread criticism that such a doctrine was not biblical, Hincmar wrote De predestinatione Dei et libero arbitrio (“On God's Predestination and Free Will”), in which he held that God cannot predestine the wicked to hell lest he be accounted the author of sin. After tedious councils at Quiercy (853) and Tuzey (860), both parties reached a reconciliation. A second theological dispute with Gottschalk concerned Hincmar's suspicion that certain liturgical expressions on the Divine Trinity (one God in Three Persons) could be misinterpreted as meaning a multiplication of deities. He defended his strictures in the treatise De una et non trina deitate (c. 865; “On One and Not a Threefold Deity”). He is also credited with being one of the first to doubt the authenticity of the False Decretals, an 8th- or 9th-century collection of spurious documents supporting papal supremacy.

      Hincmar's writings are contained in the series Patrologia Latina, J.-P. Migne (ed.), vol. 125–126 (1852). A critical edition of his letters is given in Monumenta Germaniae Historica, Epistolae VIII (1935).

* * *


Universalium. 2010.

Look at other dictionaries:

  • Hincmar De Reims — Pour les articles homonymes, voir Hincmar. Hincmar (v. 806–21 décembre 882 à Épernay), archevêque de Reims, également auteur de traités. Sommaire 1 Education …   Wikipédia en Français

  • Hincmar de reims — Pour les articles homonymes, voir Hincmar. Hincmar (v. 806–21 décembre 882 à Épernay), archevêque de Reims, également auteur de traités. Sommaire 1 Education …   Wikipédia en Français

  • Hincmar de Reims — Pour les articles homonymes, voir Hincmar. Hincmar de Reims Archevêque de Reims …   Wikipédia en Français

  • Hincmar de Reims — ( 806, ¿norte de Francia?–21 dic. 882, Epernay, cerca de Reims). Arzobispo y teólogo francés, el eclesiástico más influyente del s. IX. Aconsejó a los emperadores de la dinastía carolingia, Luis I y Carlos II, y fue nombrado arzobispo de Reims en …   Enciclopedia Universal

  • Hincmar, Archbishop of Reims —     Hincmar     † Catholic Encyclopedia ► Hincmar     An archbishop of Reims; born in 806; died at Epernay on 21 December, 882. Descended from a distinguished family of the West Franks, he received an excellent education at the Abbey of St Denis …   Catholic encyclopedia

  • Hincmar, Bishop of Laon —     Hincmar     † Catholic Encyclopedia ► Hincmar     Bishop of Laon; died 879. In the beginning of 858 the younger Hincmar, a nephew on the mother s side of the famous Hincmar of Reims, was elevated by his uncle s favour to the See of Laon, a… …   Catholic encyclopedia

  • Hincmar of Laon — (Hincmar the younger) (died 879) was a French bishop of Laon. He was a nephew on the mother s side of Hincmar of Reims.LifeIn the beginning of 858 the younger Hincmar was elevated by his uncle s favour to the See of Laon, a suffragan of the… …   Wikipedia

  • Hincmar de Laon — (ou Le Jeune) était le neveu du côté maternel de l archevêque Hincmar de Reims. En 858, peut être grâce aux faveurs de son oncle, il fut élu évêque de Laon, suffragant de Reims. Le caractère ambitieux d Hincmar le Jeune le poussa à entrer en… …   Wikipédia en Français

  • Hincmar — Cette page d’homonymie répertorie les différents sujets et articles partageant un même nom. Deux prélats francs portèrent le prénom d Hincmar : Hincmar de Reims, archevêque de Reims ; Hincmar de Laon, évêque de Laon, neveu du précédent …   Wikipédia en Français

  • Hincmar — (806 ndash;December 21, 882), archbishop of Reims, one of the most remarkable figures in the ecclesiastical history of the Carolingian period. He belonged to a noble family of the north or north east of Gaul.Early lifeDestined to the monastic… …   Wikipedia


Share the article and excerpts

Direct link
Do a right-click on the link above
and select “Copy Link”

We are using cookies for the best presentation of our site. Continuing to use this site, you agree with this.