Hess, Victor Francis

Hess, Victor Francis
born June 24, 1883, Waldstein, Styria, Austria
died Dec. 17, 1964, Mount Vernon, N.Y., U.S.

Austrian-born U.S. physicist.

He received his doctorate from the University of Vienna in 1906. His research dealt chiefly with radioactivity and atmospheric electricity. His experiments proved what had long been suspected: an extremely penetrating radiation of extraterrestrial origin permeates the atmosphere (see cosmic ray). Further investigation of this radiation, named cosmic rays in 1925, led Carl D. Anderson (1905–91) to discover the positron and opened up new fields of research in modern physics. For this work, Hess and Anderson shared a Nobel Prize in 1936.

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▪ Austrian physicist
born June 24, 1883, Waldstein, Styria, Austria
died Dec. 17, 1964, Mount Vernon, N.Y., U.S.

      Austrian-born physicist who was a joint recipient, with Carl D. Anderson of the United States, of the Nobel Prize for Physics in 1936 for his discovery of cosmic rays (cosmic ray)—high-energy radiation originating in outer space.

      Educated at the University of Graz, Hess received his Ph.D. from the University of Vienna in 1906. His research dealt chiefly with radioactivity and atmospheric electricity. For many years scientists had been unable to explain the source of an ionizing background radiation in the atmosphere that penetrated electroscopes sent aloft in balloons. It was assumed that the radiation must have its source on Earth, but preliminary findings suggesting that the radiation increased when measured at higher points above the Earth's surface cast doubt upon this hypothesis. In a series of balloon ascents in 1911–13, Hess found that the radiation increased rapidly with altitude, and suggested it had extraterrestrial origins. In 1925, Hess's theory was confirmed by Robert Andrews Millikan, who gave the radiation the name of cosmic rays. Cosmic-ray research soon emerged as an important branch of physics and led to the discovery of several new fundamental particles—including the positron, discovered by Anderson in 1932—as well as advances in astrophysics and cosmology.

      Hess taught and conducted research at the universities of Vienna (1910–20), Graz (1920–31), and Innsbruck (1931–37). He left Austria in 1937 to escape the Nazis and settled in the United States, where he taught at Fordham University in New York City until 1956.

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Universalium. 2010.

См. также в других словарях:

  • Hess , Victor Francis — (1883–1964) Austrian–American physicist Hess, the son of a forester, was born at Waldstein in Austria and educated at the University of Graz where he obtained his doctorate in 1906. He worked at the Institute for Radium Research, Vienna, from… …   Scientists

  • Hess, Victor Francis — (24 jun. 1883, Waldstein, Styria, Austria–17 dic. 1964, Mount Vernon, N.Y., EE.UU.). Físico estadounidense de origen austríaco. Recibió su doctorado de la Universidad de Viena en 1906. Investigó sobre todo la radiactividad y la electricidad… …   Enciclopedia Universal

  • Victor Francis Hess — Victor Franz Hess Pour les articles homonymes, voir Hess. Victor Franz Hess Victor Franz Hess (24 juin 1883 – 17 décembre  …   Wikipédia en Français

  • Victor Francis Hess — Infobox Scientist name = Victor Francis Hess image width = 170px caption = Victor Francis Hess birth date = birth date|1883|6|24 birth place = Waldstein Castle, near Peggau, Austria death date = death date and age|1964|12|17|1883|6|24 death place …   Wikipedia

  • Hess — Hess, Germain Henri Hess, Rudolf Hess, Victor Franz Hess, Walter Rudolph * * * (as used in expressions) Hess, (Walter Richard) Rudolf Hess, Victor Francis Hess, Walter Rudolf …   Enciclopedia Universal

  • Francis — Francis. Asteroide nº. 2050 de la serie (1974 KA), descubierto el 28 de mayo de 1974 por Eleanor Francis Helin desde Monte Palomar. La descubridora lo nombró en honor de sus padres Fred y Kay Francis. Lista de asteroides * * * Francis, turbina *… …   Enciclopedia Universal

  • Víctor — (del lat. «victor», vencedor) m. e interj. Vítor. * * * víctor. (Del lat. victor, vencedor). interj. vítor. U. t. c. s. * * * Víctor, san ► Nombre de varios papas y antipapas. ► Víctor I, san (m. 199) Pontífice romano en 189 199. Combatió el… …   Enciclopedia Universal

  • Hess — /hes/, n. 1. Dame Myra, 1890 1965, English pianist. 2. Victor Francis, 1883 1964, U.S. physicist, born in Austria: Nobel prize 1936. 3. Walter Rudolf, 1881 1973, Swiss physiologist: Nobel prize for medicine 1949. 4. (Walther Richard) Rudolf /vahl …   Universalium

  • Francis — /fran sis/, n. a male given name: from an Old French word meaning Frenchman. * * * (as used in expressions) Abbott George Francis Adams Charles Francis Bacon Francis Viscount St. Albans Bacon Francis Bayard Thomas Francis Beaumont Francis Bebey… …   Universalium

  • victor — /vik teuhr/, n. 1. a person who has overcome or defeated an adversary; conqueror. 2. a winner in any struggle or contest. 3. a word used in communications to represent the letter V. [1300 50; ME < L, equiv. to vic , var. s. of vincere to conquer… …   Universalium

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