Heaviside, Oliver


Heaviside, Oliver
born May 18, 1850, London, Eng.
died Feb. 3, 1925, Torquay, Devon

English physicist.

In 1902 he predicted the presence of the ionosphere. Since Arthur Kennelly (1861–1939) had made a similar prediction, the ionosphere was long known as the Kennelly-Heaviside layer. Heaviside's work on telephone theory made long-distance service practical. In his Electromagnetic Theory (1893–1912) he postulated that an electric charge would increase in mass as its velocity increased, anticipating one aspect of Albert Einstein's special theory of relativity. He also developed the system of mathematical transforms known as Heaviside calculus.

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▪ British physicist
born May 18, 1850, London
died Feb. 3, 1925, Torquay, Devon, Eng.

      physicist who predicted the existence of the ionosphere, an electrically conductive layer in the upper atmosphere that reflects radio waves. In 1870 he became a telegrapher, but increasing deafness forced him to retire in 1874. He then devoted himself to investigations of electricity. In Electrical Papers (1892), he dealt with theoretical aspects of problems in telegraphy and electrical transmission, making use of an unusual calculatory method called operational calculus, now better known as the method of Laplace transforms, to study transient currents in networks. His work on the theory of the telephone made long-distance service practical. In Electromagnetic Theory (1893–1912), he postulated that an electric charge would increase in mass as its velocity increases, an anticipation of an aspect of Einstein's special theory of relativity. When wireless telegraphy proved effective over long distances, Heaviside theorized that a conducting layer of the atmosphere existed that allows radio waves to follow the Earth's curvature instead of travelling off into space in a straight line. His prediction was made in 1902, shortly after Arthur E. Kennelly, working in the United States, made a similar prediction. Thus the ionosphere was known as the Kennelly–Heaviside layer for many years.

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Universalium. 2010.