Hampden, John

Hampden, John
born 1594, London, Eng.
died June 24, 1643, Thame, Oxfordshire, Eng.

English Parliamentary leader.

In 1635 he refused to pay 20 shillings in ship money, a levy by Charles I for outfitting his navy, on the ground that only Parliament was empowered to levy taxes. Though the court ruled in favour of Charles, resistance to the tax became widespread. In the Long Parliament (1640), Hampden attacked royal policies and was one of the five members who evaded arrest by the king in 1642. The ship-money episode was one of the controversies that led to the English Civil Wars, in which Hampden was mortally wounded.

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▪ English political leader
born 1594, London
died June 24, 1643, Thame, Oxfordshire, Eng.
 English Parliamentary leader famous for his opposition to King Charles I over ship money, an episode in the controversies that ultimately led to the English Civil Wars.

      A first cousin of Oliver Cromwell, Hampden was educated at the University of Oxford and the Inner Temple, London, and entered the House of Commons in 1621. There he quickly became a specialist in matters of taxation and a close friend of Sir John Eliot, a leading Puritan critic of the crown. In 1627 Hampden was imprisoned for nearly a year for refusing to contribute a forced loan demanded by the king. When Eliot died in 1632, after three years in prison, Hampden's ill will for Charles was firmly established.

      Hampden resisted on principle the payment of ship money, a levy collected by the king for outfitting his navy. Only Parliament was empowered to levy taxes, however, and Hampden reasoned that, as Parliament could meet only when summoned by the king, Charles was, in effect, eliminating the need to call Parliament if he could impose taxes himself. The king contended, however, that ship money was a type of tax that by custom did not need the approval of Parliament. In 1635 Hampden refused to pay 20 shillings in ship money, and the case went before the 12 judges of the Court of the Exchequer. Although seven of the judges upheld Charles and five sided with Hampden (1638), the narrow majority received by the king may have been a factor that encouraged widespread resistance to the tax.

      During the Long Parliament, which convened in November 1640, Hampden became the principal lieutenant of Parliamentary leader John Pym in a vigorous attack on royal policies, and he was one of the five members who successfully evaded arrest by the king in January 1642. After the outbreak of the Civil War between the Parliamentarians and the Royalists in August 1642, Hampden served as a colonel in the Battle of Edgehill, Warwickshire (October), but on June 18, 1643, he was mortally wounded in a skirmish with Royalists at Chalgrove Field, near Thame.

Additional Reading
John Adair, A Life of John Hampden, the Patriot (1594–1643) (1976).

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Universalium. 2010.

Look at other dictionaries:

  • HAMPDEN, JOHN —    a famous English statesman and patriot, cousin to Oliver Cromwell, born in London; passed through Oxford and studied law at the Inner Temple; subsequently he settled down on his father s estate, and in 1621 entered Parliament, joining the… …   The Nuttall Encyclopaedia

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  • John Hampden — (c. 1595 ndash; 1643) was an English politician, the eldest son of William Hampden, of Hampden House, Great Hampden in Buckinghamshire, a descendant of a very ancient family of that county, said to have been established there before the Norman… …   Wikipedia

  • John Hampden — (* circa 1594; † 18. Juni 1643) war ein englischer Politiker. Er war der älteste Sohn von William Hampden, of Hampden House, Great Hampden in Buckinghamshire, ein Nachfahre einer sehr alten englischen Familie und von Elisabeth, der zweiten… …   Deutsch Wikipedia

  • John Hampden — [John Hampden] (1594–1643) an English politician who opposed King ↑Charles I by refusing to pay the tax called ↑ship money. He was one of the Members of Parliament the king tried to arrest in 1642, an action which started the ↑En …   Useful english dictionary

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  • john — /jon/, n. Slang. 1. a toilet or bathroom. 2. (sometimes cap.) a fellow; guy. 3. (sometimes cap.) a prostitute s customer. [generic use of the proper name] * * * I known as John Lackland born Dec. 24, 1167, Oxford, Eng. died Oct. 18/19, 1216,… …   Universalium

  • John — /jon/, n. 1. the apostle John, believed to be the author of the fourth Gospel, three Epistles, and the book of Revelation. 2. See John the Baptist. 3. (John Lackland) 1167? 1216, king of England 1199 1216; signer of the Magna Carta 1215 (son of… …   Universalium

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  • Hampden House — is a country house in the village of Great Hampden, between Great Missenden and Princes Risborough in Buckinghamshire. It is named after the Hampden family. The Hampdens (later Earls of Buckinghamshire) are recorded as owning the site from before …   Wikipedia

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