Haber-Bosch process


Haber-Bosch process
or Haber ammonia process or synthetic ammonia process

First economically feasible method of directly synthesizing ammonia from hydrogen gas and atmospheric nitrogen.

It was developed с 1909 by Fritz Haber and Carl Bosch (1874–1940), prompted by rapidly increasing demand for nitrogen fertilizer. It was the first industrial process to use high pressure (200–400 atmospheres) for a chemical reaction. A catalyst (usually iron) lets it take place at a moderate temperature (750–1,200 °F [400–650 °C]), and immediate removal of ammonia as it is formed favours formation of more of it. Still the cheapest means of industrial nitrogen fixation, it is a basic process of the chemical industry.

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also called  Haber ammonia process,  or  synthetic ammonia process,  

      method of directly synthesizing ammonia from hydrogen and nitrogen, developed by the German physical chemist Fritz Haber (Haber, Fritz). He received the Nobel Prize for Chemistry in 1918 for this method, which made the manufacture of ammonia economically feasible. The method was translated into a large-scale process using a catalyst and high-pressure methods by Carl Bosch (Bosch, Carl), an industrial chemist who won a Nobel Prize in 1931 jointly with Friedrich Bergius for high-pressure studies.

      Haber-Bosch was the first industrial chemical process to use high pressure for a chemical reaction. It directly combines nitrogen from the air with hydrogen under extremely high pressures and moderately high temperatures. A catalyst made mostly from iron enables the reaction to be carried out at a lower temperature than would otherwise be practicable, while the removal of ammonia from the batch as soon as it is formed ensures that an equilibrium favouring product formation is maintained. The lower the temperature and the higher the pressure used, the greater the proportion of ammonia yielded in the mixture. For commercial production, the reaction is carried out at pressures ranging from 200 to 400 atmospheres and at temperatures ranging from 400° to 650° C (750° to 1200° F). The Haber-Bosch process is the most economical for the fixation of nitrogen (nitrogen fixation) and with modifications continues in use as one of the basic processes of the chemical industry in the world. See also nitrogen fixation.

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Universalium. 2010.

Look at other dictionaries:

  • Haber-Bosch process — noun an industrial process for producing ammonia from nitrogen and hydrogen by combining them under high pressure in the presence of an iron catalyst • Syn: ↑Haber process • Hypernyms: ↑industrial process …   Useful english dictionary

  • Bosch process — may refer to:*Bosch process (microtechnology) a microfabrication technique for creating high aspect ratio features *Haber Bosch Process ammonia production method in chemical industry …   Wikipedia

  • Histoire du procédé Haber-Bosch — L un des appareils de laboratoire qu utilisa Fritz Haber pour synthétiser de l ammoniac sous haute pression. L histoire du procédé Haber Bosch débute avec l invention du procédé de chimie homonyme à l aube du XXe siècle. Le procédé Haber… …   Wikipédia en Français

  • Procédé Haber-Bosch — Procédé Haber Le procédé Haber est un procédé chimique destiné à synthétiser de l ammoniac (NH3) à partir du diazote (N2) gazeux atmosphérique et du dihydrogène (H2) gazeux en présence d un catalyseur[1],[2] …   Wikipédia en Français

  • Ha|ber-Bosch process — «HAH buhr BSH», a commercial method of manufacturing ammonia gas from gaseous hydrogen and nitrogen. ╂[< Fritz Haber, 1868 1934, and Carl Bosch, 1874 1940, German chemists] …   Useful english dictionary

  • Haber-Boschprocess — Haber Bosch process (häʹbər bôshʹ) n. See Haber process.   [After Haber, Fritz, and KarlBosch (1874 1940), German chemist.] * * * …   Universalium

  • Haber process — The Haber process, also called the Haber–Bosch process, is the nitrogen fixation reaction of nitrogen and hydrogen, over an iron substrate, to produce ammonia. Enriching the Earth: Fritz Haber, Carl Bosch, and the Transformation of World Food… …   Wikipedia

  • Haber, Fritz — born Dec. 9, 1868, Breslau, Silesia, Prussia died Jan. 29, 1934, Basel, Switz. German physical chemist. After early research in electrochemistry and thermodynamics, he developed, with his brother in law Carl Bosch (1874–1940), the Haber Bosch… …   Universalium

  • Bosch, Carl — ▪ German chemist born Aug. 27, 1874, Cologne, Germany died April 26, 1940, Heidelberg  German industrial chemist who developed the Haber Bosch process for high pressure synthesis of ammonia and received, with Friedrich Bergius (Bergius,… …   Universalium

  • process — processual /pro sesh ooh euhl/ or, esp. Brit, /proh /, adj. /pros es/; esp. Brit. /proh ses/, n., pl. processes /pros es iz, euh siz, euh seez / or, esp. Brit., /proh ses , proh seuh /, v., adj. n. 1. a systematic series of actions directed to… …   Universalium


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