Granicus, Battle of the

Granicus, Battle of the
(334 BC) First victory won by Alexander the Great in his invasion of the Persian empire.

Against heavy odds at the Granicus River, Alexander's army defeated the Persians under Darius III, who fled. Alexander himself charged the Persian generals, killing two of Darius' relatives and almost losing his own life. The Macedonians reportedly lost only 115 men. The victory gave western Asia Minor to Alexander, and most cities hastened to open their gates.

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▪ Greek history [334 BC]
      (early summer of 334 BC), first victory won by Alexander the Great of Macedon in his invasion of the Persian Empire. The best account in the ancient sources, which include Diodorus Siculus (1st century BC) and Plutarch's Life of Alexander (2nd century AD), is that of Arrian's Anabasis (2nd century AD), which draws directly from contemporary accounts. The Persian army, numbering perhaps 40,000, occupied the far bank of the Granicus River (present-day Kocabaş, which flows into the Sea of Marmara). Alexander sent his shock troops, the Companions, into the stream to attack the Persians, who drove back the assault. When the Persians entered the stream to pursue the Macedonians, Alexander led the remaining Companions obliquely into the confused Persian ranks. The Persian cavalry fled, leaving the Greek mercenaries, who were on the plain along the river, open to a devastating assault from Alexander's army. Alexander himself killed two relatives of the Persian king, Darius III, and his own life was saved by his cavalry commander, Cleitus (the Black). According to Arrian, Alexander lost only 115 of his own men. The victory left Asia Minor wide open to the Macedonian invasion.

E. Badian

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Universalium. 2010.

Look at other dictionaries:

  • Battle of the Granicus — Infobox Military Conflict caption=The Battle of the Granicus River conflict=Battle of the Granicus partof=the Wars of Alexander the Great date=May, 334 BC place=Granicus River (Modern day Biga Çayı ), Turkey result=Macedonian victory.… …   Wikipedia

  • battle — battle1 battler, n. /bat l/, n., v., battled, battling. n. 1. a hostile encounter or engagement between opposing military forces: the battle of Waterloo. 2. participation in such hostile encounters or engagements: wounds received in battle. 3. a… …   Universalium

  • Battle of Issus — Infobox Military Conflict caption=Alexander battling Darius at the Battle of Issus conflict=Battle of Issus partof=the Wars of Alexander the Great date=November 5, 333 BC place=Issus, Turkey territory=Alexander controls southern Asia Minor.… …   Wikipedia

  • Granicus — /grəˈnaɪkəs/ (say gruh nuykuhs) noun an ancient river in north western Asia Minor; the site of Alexander s first major battle with the Persians (334 BC) …   Australian English dictionary

  • Granicus — [grə nī′kəs] river in ancient Mysia (W Asia Minor): site of a battle (334 B.C. ) in which Alexander the Great defeated the Persians …   English World dictionary

  • Granicus — noun the battle in which Alexander won his first major victory against the Persians (334 BC) • Syn: ↑Battle of Granicus River • Regions: ↑Asia Minor, ↑Anatolia • Instance Hypernyms: ↑pitched battle * * * /greuh nuy keuhs/ …   Useful english dictionary

  • Battle of Granicus River — noun the battle in which Alexander won his first major victory against the Persians (334 BC) • Syn: ↑Granicus • Regions: ↑Asia Minor, ↑Anatolia • Instance Hypernyms: ↑pitched battle …   Useful english dictionary

  • battle — Synonyms and related words: Actium, Adrianople, Aegates Isles, Aegospotami, Agincourt, Antietam, Anzio, Arbela Gaugamela, Ardennes, Austerlitz, Ayacucho, Balaclava, Bannockburn, Bataan Corregidor, Bismarck Sea, Blenheim, Bosworth Field, Bouvines …   Moby Thesaurus

  • Granicus — /greuh nuy keuhs/, n. a river in NW Turkey, flowing N to the Sea of Marmara: battle 334 B.C. 45 mi. (70 km) long. * * * …   Universalium

  • Alexander the Great — 356 323 B.C., king of Macedonia 336 323: conqueror of Greek city states and of the Persian empire from Asia Minor and Egypt to India. * * * or Alexander III born 356 BC, Pella, Macedonia died June 13, 323 BC, Babylon King of Macedonia (336–323)… …   Universalium

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