Georgian language


Georgian language
Caucasian language of the Republic of Georgia, spoken by about 4.

1 million people worldwide. Georgian is unique among Caucasian languages in having an ancient literary tradition. The earliest attestation of the language is an inscription of AD 430 in a church in Palestine, in a script ancestral to that used for Old Georgian (5th–11th centuries). The civil script used to write Modern Georgian, with 33 characters and no distinction between upper-and lowercase, was an offshoot of a script that first appeared in the 10th century. The origins of Georgian writing are uncertain, though it was presumably a free adaptation of the Greek alphabet, with new characters invented for the sounds peculiar to Georgian. Georgian has features typical of other Caucasian languages, including a large consonant inventory (with clusters of up to six consonants appearing at the beginning of a word).

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Georgian  kartuli ena 

      official language of the Republic of Georgia, whose spoken form has many dialects, usually divided into East Georgian and West Georgian groups. These, together with the related Mingrelian (Megrelian), Laz (Chan), and Svan languages, make up the Kartvelian, or South Caucasian, language family. Georgian is also spoken in parts of Azerbaijan and northeastern Turkey and in many villages in the region of Eṣfahān in Iran.

      The Georgian literary tradition, in the form of inscriptions, dates back to the 5th century. Many literary monuments remain from the Old Georgian period (5th–11th century), among them a translation of the Bible. The New Georgian literary language is based on an East Georgian dialect and originated in the secular literature of the 12th century; it became fully established in the middle of the 19th century. Old Georgian was used for religious purposes until the beginning of the 19th century.

      New Georgian has five vowels and 28 consonants; Old Georgian had five vowels but 30 consonants. Georgian has roughly the same parts of speech as do the Indo-European languages. The noun has seven cases, and the adjective, usually preceding the noun it modifies, agrees with the noun in case but not in number.

      Historically, the Georgian language was written in three scripts. Asomtavruli evolved into Khutsuri, an ecclesiastical script of 38 letters, including 6 vowels. Neither script is currently in use. Mkhedruli, a lay alphabet originally of 40 letters (7 are now obsolete), 6 of them vowels, is the script commonly used at present in printing and handwriting. All scripts are written from left to right.

      The Old Georgian script must have been derived from the Greek alphabet. This is suggested by the order of the alphabet (which reflects the Greek sequence) and the shape of some of the characters, although the angular shape of the majority of signs of the Old Georgian script appears to be a result of a free creation of its inventor.

      The modern Georgian script is based on the round-form cursive, which was developed from the angular book script of the 9th century; the latter was a direct descendant of the Old Georgian system.

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Universalium. 2010.

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