- Gall, Franz Joseph
born March 9, 1758, Tiefenbronn, Badendied Aug. 22, 1828, Paris, Fr.German anatomist and physiologist, founder of phrenology.Convinced that mental functions reside in specific brain areas and determine behaviour, he assumed that the skull surface reflected development of these areas. The first concept was proved correct when Paul Broca located the brain's speech centre in 1861. The second was invalidated when it was found that the skull's thickness varies, so its shape does not reflect the brain's. Gall was the first to identify gray matter with active tissue (nerves) and white matter with conducting tissue.
* * *▪ German anatomist and physiologistborn March 9, 1758, Tiefenbronn, Baden [Germany]died Aug. 22, 1828, Paris, Fr.German anatomist and physiologist, a pioneer in ascribing cerebral functions to various areas of the brain (localization). He originated phrenology, the attempt to divine individual intellect and personality from an examination of skull shape.Convinced that mental functions are localized in specific regions of the brain and that human behaviour is dependent upon these functions, Gall assumed that the surface of the skull faithfully reflects the relative development of the various regions of the brain. His popular lectures in Vienna on “cranioscopy” (called phrenology by his followers) offended religious leaders, were condemned in 1802 by the Austrian government as contrary to religion, and were banned. Three years later he was forced to leave the country.His concept of localized functions in the brain was proved correct when the French surgeon Paul Broca demonstrated the existence of a speech centre in the brain (1861). It was also shown, however, that, since skull thickness varies, the surface of the skull does not reflect the topography of the brain, invalidating the basic premise of phrenology. Gall was the first to identify the gray matter of the brain with active tissue (neurons) and the white matter with conducting tissue (ganglia).
* * *
См. также в других словарях:
Gall, Franz Joseph — (9 mar. 1758, Tiefenbronn, Baden–22 ago. 1828, París, Francia). Anatomista y fisiólogo alemán, fundador de la frenología. Convencido de que las funciones mentales residen en áreas específicas del cerebro y determinan la conducta, supuso que la… … Enciclopedia Universal
Gall Franz, Joseph — ► (1758 1828) Fisiólogo alemán. Estudió la anatomía del sistema nervioso y fue el creador de la frenología … Enciclopedia Universal
GALL, FRANZ JOSEPH — the founder of phrenology, born at Tiefenbronn, on the borders of Baden and Würtemberg; in 1785 he established himself as a physician in Vienna, where for many years he carried on a series of elaborate investigations on the nature of the brain … The Nuttall Encyclopaedia
Gall Franz — Gall Franz, Joseph … Enciclopedia Universal
Franz Joseph Gall — Franz Josef Gall, Lithographie von Joseph Lanzedelly d. Ä … Deutsch Wikipedia
Franz Joseph Gall — Saltar a navegación, búsqueda Franz Joseph Gall Franz Joseph Gall (9 de marzo de 1758, Tiefenbronn, Baden 22 de agosto de 1828, París) fue un anatomista y fisiólogo … Wikipedia Español
Franz Joseph Haydn — Joseph Haydn 1791, Ölgemälde von Thomas Hardy (Franz) Joseph Haydn (auch Josef, er benutzte nie Franz; * 31. März 1732 in Rohrau, Niederösterreich; † 31. Mai 1809 in Wien) war ein führender österreichischer Komponist der … Deutsch Wikipedia
Franz Joseph Gall — Pour les articles homonymes, voir Gall. Franz Joseph Gall … Wikipédia en Français
Franz Joseph Gall — (March 9, 1758 August 22, 1828) was a neuroanatomist, physiologist, and pioneer in the study of the localization of mental functions in the brain.Gall was born in Baden, in the village of Tiefenbronn to a wealthy Roman Catholic wool merchant. The … Wikipedia
Franz Gall — Franz Joseph Gall Pour les articles homonymes, voir Gall. Franz Joseph Gall Franz Joseph Gall (9 mars 1758, Tiefenbronn … Wikipédia en Français