Gajah Mada

Gajah Mada
died 1364

Prime minister of the Majapahit empire and a national hero in Indonesia.

Born a commoner, Gajah Mada rose to power on his intelligence, courage, and loyalty to King Jayanagara (r. 1309–28), whom he restored to power after an insurrection. His feelings for the king changed when the latter took possession of his wife, and he subsequently had the king killed. During the reigns of Jayanagara's daughter Tribhuvana and grandson Hayam Wuruk (r. 1350–89), Gajah Mada was the most powerful figure in Majapahit, conquering territories that may have included the entire Indonesian archipelago and part of Malaysia. A law book that had great significance in Javanese history was compiled under his instructions, and the principal poet of the era, Prapancha (fl. 14th century), eulogized Gajah Mada (his patron) in Nagarakrtagama, the epic of Majapahit.

Terra-cotta head identified as Gajah Mada; in the Trawulan Site Museum, Indonesia

By courtesy of the Trawulan Museum, Indonesia

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▪ prime minister of Majapahit Empire
also spelled  Gadjah Mada  
died 1364
 prime minister of the Majapahit empire and a national hero in Indonesia. He is believed to have unified the entire archipelago. The principal poet of the era, Prapanca, eulogized Gajah Mada in an epic, and the first Indonesian university in Jogjakarta was named after him (1946).

      No information is available on his early life, except that he was born a commoner. He rose to power on his intelligence, courage, and loyalty to King Jayanagara (1309–28) during a rebellion led by Kuti in 1319. He served as the head of the royal bodyguard that escorted King Jayanagara to Badander, when Kuti captured the capital of Majapahit. After finding a safe place for the King, he returned to the capital and spread the rumour that the King had been killed. He discovered that many officers were upset by the King's supposed death and that Kuti was apparently unpopular among the people. Knowing, therefore, that the King still had loyal followers, Gajah Mada secretly organized a counterinsurrection, in which Kuti was killed and the King was restored. As a reward, Gajah Mada was appointed as the patih (minister) of Daha and, later, the patih of Daha and Janggala, a position that made him a member of the ruling elite. Prapanca, a court poet and historian, described Gajah Mada as “eloquent, sharp of speech, upright, and sober-minded.”

      Gajah Mada's loyalty to Jayanagara waned, however, when the King took possession of his wife. In 1328, when Jayanagara was ill, Gajah Mada instructed Tancha, the court physician, to kill the King during an operation. Upon the death of the King, Tancha was blamed and executed by Gajah Mada. Since the King had no son, his daughter Tribhuvana became ruler.

      During the reign of Tribhuvana (1328–50), Gajah Mada gradually became the most powerful figure in Majapahit. In 1331 a rebellion took place in Sadeng (eastern Java). Gajah Mada immediately sent a military expedition to the area, but a minister of Majapahit named Kembar attempted to stop him from entering Sadeng. Gajah Mada broke the blockade and won the battle.

      Upon his return, Gajah Mada was appointed as mapatih, or prime minister, of Majapahit. At the same time, he took a solemn oath before the council of ministers that he would not enjoy palapa (privileges of vacation or the revenue from his fief ) before he conquered the whole archipelago for Majapahit. When Kembar and other ministers ridiculed this fantastic boast, Gajah Mada, with the help of the Queen, removed Kembar and his followers from office. In 1343, in accordance with his plans, Gajah Mada led a military expedition that conquered Bali.

      Tribhuvana abdicated in 1350 and was succeeded by her son Hayam Wuruk, perhaps the best known king of Majapahit. During his reign, Majapahit reached the zenith of its power and controlled the whole of the Indonesian archipelago. The young King seemed content to leave the direction of affairs entirely in the hands of his prime minister.

      The year after Hayam Wuruk's accession, Gajah Mada attempted to spread Majapahit influence to the western Java kingdom of Sunda. He sent a mission to Sunda expressing the wish of Hayam Wuruk to marry the daughter of the King of Sunda. The King consented and brought the Princess, together with some of his noblemen, to Majapahit. They camped in Bubat, north of the capital, in a large field where the wedding was supposed to take place. A disagreement ensued between Gajah Mada and the Sundanese king. The former wanted the King to surrender the Princess to Hayam Wuruk, but the King and his noblemen insisted that the Princess, as the queen of Majapahit, should have a status equal to that of Hayam Wuruk.

      Gajah Mada brought in troops and intended to decide the issue by force. The Sundanese noblemen preferred death to dishonour; instead of a happy wedding, a bloody massacre took place. The King of Sunda was killed, as were the Princess and the Sundanese noblemen. After the massacre, Sunda seems to have acknowledged the overlordship of Majapahit for a time but, ultimately, recovered its independence.

      To glorify his power, Gajah Mada built a temple on the boundary line of the Singhasāri kingdom in eastern Java to equate himself with the last king of Singhasāri. It was under his patronage that Prapanca began the composition of Nāgarakertāgama, the epic of Majapahit. A law book that had a great significance in Javanese history was also compiled under his instructions.

      Gajah Mada also played a major role in the direction of internal policy. He occupied numerous positions, including that of chief officer of the palace. The range of his activities was so great that, when he died, Hayam Wuruk found it necessary to appoint four ministers to take over the positions that had previously been the responsibility of Gajah Mada alone. Gajah Mada's death (1364) occurred under mysterious circumstances. Some writers claim that he was poisoned by Hayam Wuruk, who had come to fear his minister's power. The evidence, however, is inconclusive.

      Gajah Mada's role in unifying the Indonesian archipelago caused early Indonesian nationalists to consider him a great national hero, and the first Indonesian university in Jogjakarta, established in 1946, was named after him.

Leo Suryadinata

Additional Reading
D.G.E. Hall, A History of Southeast Asia, 3rd ed., pp. 65–93 (1968), a detailed and comprehensive section on the history of Java in relation to Singhasāri and Majapahit; Theodore G.T. Pigeaud (ed.), Java in the Fourteenth Century: A Study in Cultural History, 5 vol. (1960–63), including a fully annotated translation of the Javanese chronicle, Nāgarakertāgama, a major source for the history of Singhasāri and Majapahit; B.H.M. Vlekke, Nusantara: A History of Indonesia, rev. ed., pp. 69–79 (1965), a well-researched section on Gajah Mada.

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Universalium. 2010.

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