- Finno-Ugric languages
Branch of the Uralic language family spoken by about 25 million people in northeastern Europe, northern Asia, and (through immigration) North America.More than 20 million are accounted for by two languages, Finnish and Hungarian. The Ugric subbranch comprises Hungarian and Ob-Ugrian. The latter consists of two language complexes of western Siberia, Khanty and Mansi, spoken by fewer than 15,000 people. The Finnic branch comprises the Sami (Saami, Lappish) languages, the Baltic Finnic languages, Mordvin, Mari, and the Permic languages. Sami is spoken by some 20,000 people in northern Scandinavia and adjacent Russia. Baltic Finnic comprises Finnish, Estonian (with 1.1 million speakers worldwide), and a string of declining languages in Latvia and Russia. Mordvin is spoken by 1.1 million people in scattered enclaves of central European Russia. Mari is also spoken in central Russia and in scattered areas east toward the Ural Mountains; its two major varieties have about 600,000 speakers. The Permic languages, spread over a broad swath of northeastern European Russia, comprise Udmurt (spoken by some 500,000 people) and Komi (spoken by fewer than 400,000 people but with two literary forms). Finno-Ugric languages written in Russia use variants of the Cyrillic alphabet, while those outside Russia use the Latin alphabet.
* * *group of languages constituting much the larger of the two branches of a more comprehensive grouping, the Uralic languages (q.v.). The Finno-Ugric languages are spoken by several million people distributed discontinuously over an area extending from Norway in the west to the Ob River region in Siberia and south to the lower Danube River in Europe. In this vast territory, the Finno-Ugric peoples constitute enclaves surrounded by speakers of Germanic, Slavic, Romanian, and Turkic languages.The Ugric division of Finno-Ugric languages is composed of Hungarian and the Ob-Ugric languages Mansi (Vogul) and Khanty (Ostyak). The Finnic division of Finno-Ugric languages is composed of five groups. The Baltic-Finnic (Baltic languages) group consists of Finnish (Finnish language), Estonian (Estonian language), Karelian (Karelian language) (including Olonets), Ludic, Veps, Ingrian, Livonian, and Votic (Votic language). The Permic (Permic languages) group consists of Komi (Zyryan), Permyak, and Udmurt (Votyak). The three remaining groups are the individual languages Mari (Mari language) (formerly Cheremis), Mordvin (Mordvin language), and Sami (Sami language) (formerly Lapp). Mari and Mordvin, however, are frequently classified together as the Volga-Finnic group of languages. Also, because the dialects of Sami are almost mutually unintelligible, they are often classified as separate languages.The vocabulary of the Finno-Ugric languages reflects a series of contacts with neighbouring non-Uralic peoples at different periods in history. Loanwords from Indo-Iranian seem to be the oldest. Finnish borrowed from Baltic languages in remote times and later from Germanic languages and Russian. Mari, Udmurt, and the Ob-Ugric languages are rich in Turkic loanwords. Hungarian has also borrowed at different times from several Turkic sources, as well as from Iranian, Slavic, German, Latin, and the Romance languages.The phonologies of the modern Finno-Ugric languages show a variety of forms, and virtually no feature is common to the entire group. For example, vowel harmony (in which vowels are divided into two or three classes, usually a back, front, and neutral category that may not occur together in the same word), which is sometimes thought of as characteristic of Finno-Ugric, is not found in Sami, Khanty, or the Permic languages. Consonant gradation—an intricate alternation between two classes of stem consonants—occurs in Sami and the Baltic-Finnic languages. The usual method of marking grammatical categories in these languages is by the addition of suffixes. Some of the group (e.g., Finnish and Hungarian) make use of an elaborate case system. Sami and the Ob-Ugric languages mark dual number as well as singular and plural.
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Finno-Ugric languages — Finno Ugric Geographic distribution: Eastern and Northern Europe, North Asia Linguistic classification: Uralic Finno Ugric Subdivisions: Ugric (Ugrian) … Wikipedia
finno-ugric languages — noun plural Usage: capitalized F&U : a subfamily of the Uralic family of languages comprising various languages spoken in Hungary, Lapland, Finland, Estonia, and in Russia north and east of the Volga as far as the Ob river in Siberia see uralic… … Useful english dictionary
Finno-Permic languages — Infobox Language family name=Finno Permic region=Northern Fennoscandia, Baltic states, Southwestern, Southeastern, and Ural region of Russia familycolor=Uralic fam1=Uralic fam2=Finno Ugric child1=Permic child2=Finno Volgaic iso2=fiuThe Finno… … Wikipedia
Finno-Volgaic languages — Infobox Language family name=Finno Volgaic region=Northern Fennoscandia, Baltic states, Southwestern and Southeastern Russia familycolor=Uralic fam1=Uralic fam2=Finno Ugric fam3=Finno Permic child1=Baltic Finnic languages child2=Volga Finnic… … Wikipedia
Finno-Lappic languages — Infobox Language family name=Finno Lappic region=Northern Fennoscandia, Baltic states familycolor=Uralic fam1=Uralic fam2=Finno Ugric fam3=Finno Permic fam4=Finno Volgaic child1=Sami child2=Baltic Finnic map caption=Approximate distribution of… … Wikipedia
Finno-Ugric — can refer to:* Finno Ugric languages* Finno Ugric peoples … Wikipedia
Finno-Ugric religion — Pre Christian belief systems of the Finno Ugric peoples, who lived in northern Scandinavia, Siberia, the Baltic region, and central Europe. Surviving Finno Ugric groups include the Sami (Lapps), Finns, Estonians, and Magyars. The geographic and… … Universalium
Finno-Ugric peoples — The term Finno Ugric people is used to describe peoples speaking a Finno Ugric language. The subgroups include Finnic peoples and Ugric peoples. They are a subgroup of Uralic peoples.Location The four largest Finno Ugric peoples are Hungarians… … Wikipedia
Ugric languages — Infobox Language family name=Ugric region=Hungary and Western Siberia familycolor=Uralic fam1=Uralic fam2=Finno Ugric child1=Hungarian child2=Ob UgricUgric or Ugrian languages IPAEng|ˈjuːɡrɨk, ˈjuːɡriən are a branch of the Finno Ugric language… … Wikipedia
Finno-Ugric — adjective Date: 1879 1. of, relating to, or constituting a subfamily of the Uralic family of languages comprising various languages spoken in Hungary, Lapland, Finland, Estonia, and parts of western Russia 2. of or relating to any of the peoples… … New Collegiate Dictionary