- Farnese family
Italian family that ruled the duchy of Parma and Piacenza from 1545 to 1731.The family became noted for its statesmen and soldiers, especially in the 14th–15th century, as well as by contracting politically useful marriages. In 1545 Pope Paul III, a Farnese, detached Parma and Piacenza from the papal dominions and made them into duchies. The first duke was his illegitimate son, Pier Luigi Farnese (1503–47), whose son Ottavio (1542–86), the 2nd duke, made Parma the capital and consolidated the family's power. The 3rd duke, Alessandro Farnese, was Spain's regent of the Netherlands and duke in name only. His son, Ranuccio I (1569–1622), and grandson, Odoardo I (1612–46), left heavy financial and diplomatic debts by inconclusive military campaigns in the Thirty Years' War. In 1649 Pope Innocent X accused the Farnese of the murder of an ecclesiastic and seized the fief. Ranuccio II (1630–94) declared war and was defeated, and the duchy survived precariously. Francesco Farnese (1678–1727) tried to save the state, but his only important success was the marriage of his niece Isabella Farnese to Philip V of Spain (1714). In 1731 the duchy passed from the last Farnese of the male line, Antonio (1679–1731), to Elizabeth's son, the future Charles III.
* * *▪ Italian familyan Italian family that ruled the duchy of Parma and Piacenza from 1545 to 1731. Originating in upper Lazio, the family soon became noted through its statesmen and its soldiers, especially in the 14th and 15th centuries.The first of its most celebrated members was Alessandro (1468–1549), the future Pope Paul III (see Paul III under Paul [Papacy]). His vast culture, as well as the love affair of his sister Giulia with Pope Alexander VI, assured his rapid rise at the Roman court. A cardinal from the age of 25, he was elected pope on Oct. 13, 1534, after a compromise reached by the French and the imperial parties. In the prevailing spirit of nepotism, Paul III, at the consistory of Aug. 19, 1545, detached Parma and Piacenza from the papal dominions and erected them into duchies.Pier Luigi (1503–47), the first duke, was Paul's son by a woman whose name is unknown. He instituted a supreme council of justice and a ducal chamber, ordered a census of the population, reduced the Valtarese to submission, and curbed the power of the feudal lords. Pier Luigi's second son and successor, Ottavio (1542–86), made Parma his capital instead of Piacenza and continued his father's work of internal consolidation and the struggle against the feudal lords. He harshly repressed a conspiracy in 1582 and subdued the Valtarese again. Pier Luigi's eldest son, Alessandro (1520–89), had been created cardinal at 14. A patron of scholars and artists, it was he who completed the magnificent Farnese palaces in Rome and at Caprarola.The third duke, Alessandro (Farnese, Alessandro, duke of Parma and Piacenza) (1545–92), Ottavio's son, was the most distinguished male member of the Farnese family (see Farnese, Alessandro, duca di Parma e Piacenza (Farnese, Alessandro, duke of Parma and Piacenza)). Educated at the court of Madrid, where he had been sent as a hostage according to a clause in the treaty of Ghent, Alessandro followed a career of arms and, after his father's death, continued in command of the Spanish forces in Flanders because Philip II would not agree to his return to Parma, of which he was duke in name only.Alessandro was succeeded in 1592 by his son Ranuccio I (1569–1622), who had been regent since 1586. In 1612 Ranuccio ferociously repressed a conspiracy of the nobles, which was provoked by a further diminution of the privileges of the local feudatories but was abetted by the Gonzaga dukes of Mantua and perhaps also by the house of Savoy.Ranuccio's son and successor, Odoardo I (1612–46), was ambitious and impulsive, and he engaged in inconclusive campaigns and diplomacy during the Thirty Years' War. His eldest son, Ranuccio II (1630–94), who succeeded him in 1646, inherited a heavy financial and diplomatic burden. In 1649 Pope Innocent X accused the Farnese of the murder of an ecclesiastic and seized the fief; Ranuccio declared war but was utterly defeated at Bologna on August 13 of that year. Although the duchy survived, it remained on the whole precarious, one of the reasons being the continual passage of troops during the War of the Grand Alliance.Francesco (1678–1727), son of Ranuccio II and his successor in 1694, attempted to save the fortunes of the state and of the dynasty, now in utter decadence, by his economic and diplomatic initiative, but his only important success was the marriage of his niece Elisabetta (see Isabella (Isabella Farnese)) to Philip V of Spain in 1714, which enabled him to pursue a plan for an anti-Austrian league in Italy.The last Farnese of the male line was Antonio (1679–1731), duke from 1727. Parma and Piacenza passed to Don Carlos (the future Charles III of Spain), Philip V's eldest son by Isabella.
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Farnese family — Farnese ancestry can be traced back to the 12th century in Rome. It was not until the reign of Alexander VI (1492 1503) that the family achieved considerable prestige thanks to the amorous liaison between the pope and Giulia Farnese. In 1534,… … Dictionary of Renaissance art
Farnese Gardens — 1761 engraving by architect Giuseppe Vasi from book 10 of his series of vedute (views) of Rome, showing the Farnese Gardens on Palatine Hill in Rome at that time. The ground floor entrance is at right, and the twin domes are above the aviaries on … Wikipedia
Farnese Cup — The Farnese Cup (Tazza Farnese) is a 2nd century BC cameo cup of Hellenistic Egypt in four layered sardonyx agate. It is 20cm wide.HistoryAfter Octavian s conquest of Egypt in 31 BC, the Farnese Cup was acquired by the Treasury of Rome. It was… … Wikipedia
Farnese ceiling, Palazzo Farnese, Rome — (c. 1597 1600) Commissioned by Cardinal Odoardo Farnese from Annibale Carracci for his newly built Palazzo Farnese in Rome. The subject of the Farnese ceiling is the loves of the gods, the inspiration for its overall arrangement being… … Dictionary of Renaissance art
Farnese — /fahrdd ne ze/, n. Alessandro /ah les sahn drddaw/, Duke of Parma, 1545 92, Italian general, statesman, and diplomat. * * * (as used in expressions) Farnese family Farnese Alessandro duke di Parma and Piacenza Isabella Farnese Alessandro Farnese… … Universalium
Farnese Diadumenos — The Farnese Diadumenos is a 1st century AD, slightly smaller than lifesize, Roman marble copy of Polyclitus s Diadumenos sculpture. Once held by the Farnese family, it is now held at the British Museum. [Accession number GR 1864.10 21.4 (Cat.… … Wikipedia
family — /fam euh lee, fam lee/, n., pl. families, adj. n. 1. parents and their children, considered as a group, whether dwelling together or not. 2. the children of one person or one couple collectively: We want a large family. 3. the spouse and children … Universalium
Farnese, Palazzo — ▪ building, Rome, Italy Rome, important example of High Renaissance architecture designed by Antonio da Sangallo and built between 1517 and 1589. In 1546, when Sangallo died, leaving the building of the palace unfinished, Michelangelo was… … Universalium
Farnese, House of — Family of Italian nobility. Originally soldiers and landholders in southern Tuscany and the Papal States, the Farnese rose to princely status after Alessandro Farnese was elected Pope Paul III (1534 1549). Pope Paul was the first post… … Historical Dictionary of Renaissance
Farnese, Alessandro, duke of Parma and Piacenza — ▪ regent of The Netherlands Introduction Italian in full Alessandro Farnese, duca di Parma e Piacenza born Aug. 27, 1545, Rome [Italy] died Dec. 3, 1592, Arras, France regent of the Netherlands (1578–92) for Philip II, the Habsburg king of… … Universalium