Darby, Abraham

Darby, Abraham
born 1678?, near Dudley, Worcestershire, Eng.
died March 8, 1717, Madeley Court, Worcestershire

British ironmaster.

In 1709 Darby's Bristol Iron Co. became the first to successfully smelt iron ore with coke (see smelting). He demonstrated the superiority of coke in cost and efficiency by building much larger furnaces than were possible with charcoal as fuel. The quality of his iron made it possible to manufacture thin castings that rivaled brass for pots and other hollowware. Iron from his establishment was used for the cylinders of Thomas Newcomen's engines, for a cast-iron bridge, and for the first locomotive with a high-pressure boiler. See also Dud Dudley.

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▪ British ironmaster
born 1678?, near Dudley, Worcestershire, Eng.
died March 8, 1717, Madeley Court, Worcestershire

      British ironmaster who first successfully smelted iron ore with coke.

      Darby, who had used coke in smelting copper in Bristol, in 1708 founded the Bristol Iron Company. He acquired premises at Coalbrookdale, on the Severn, close to supplies of low-sulfur coal. In 1709 he produced marketable iron in a coke-fired furnace. He presently demonstrated the superiority of coke in cost and efficiency by building much larger furnaces than were possible with charcoal as a fuel, the latter being too weak to support a heavy charge of iron.

      The quality of Darby's iron made it possible for him to manufacture thin castings that could compete successfully with brass in such applications as the manufacture of pots and other hollow ware.

      The advent of the Thomas Newcomen steam engine in 1712 created an important new market for iron; by 1758, when Darby had been succeeded by his eldest son, Abraham Darby (1711–63), more than 100 Newcomen cylinders had been cast at Coalbrookdale. In 1779 Darby's grandson, Abraham Darby III (1750–91), completed one of the world's first cast-iron bridges (at present-day Ironbridge, near Coalbrookdale), and in 1802 the Coalbrookdale Works built the first railway locomotive with a high-pressure boiler, for Richard Trevithick, an English engineer and inventor.

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Universalium. 2010.

См. также в других словарях:

  • Darby, Abraham — (¿1678?, cerca de Dudley, Worcestershire, Inglaterra–8 mar. 1717, Madeley Court, Worcestershire). Empresario siderúrgico británico. En 1709, la empresa Bristol Iron Co. de Darby llegó a ser la primera en fundir con éxito mineral de hierro con… …   Enciclopedia Universal

  • DARBY, Abraham III — (1750 1791)    See CAST IRON …   Historical Dictionary of Architecture

  • Abraham Darby I — Abraham Darby (April 14, 1678 ndash; May 5, 1717) was the first, and most famous, of three generations with that name in an English Quaker family that played an important role in the Industrial Revolution. He developed a method of producing high… …   Wikipedia

  • Abraham Darby I — Abraham Darby (14 de abril de 1678 – 8 de marzo de 1717[1] ) fue el primero y más conocido de tres generaciones del mismo nombre, perteneciente a una familia de cuáqueros ingleses, que representó un papel primordial durante la revolución… …   Wikipedia Español

  • Abraham Darby II — (1711 ndash; 1763) was the second Abraham Darby in three generations of an English Quaker family that played a role in the Industrial Revolution. He followed in his father s footsteps at the Darby foundry in Coalbrookdale, refining techniques for …   Wikipedia

  • DARBY (A.) — DARBY ABRAHAM (1711 1763) Métallurgiste anglais, né et mort à Coalbrookdale, dans le Shropshire. Fils du maître de forges anglais Abraham Darby (1678 1717), il réussit le premier à fondre des minerais de fer avec du coke dans un haut fourneau.… …   Encyclopédie Universelle

  • Abraham Darby (rose) — Abraham Darby Abraham Darby (appelé aussi Country Darby ) est un cultivar de rosier obtenu par David Austin en 1985, nommé d après le quaker Abraham Darby. C est un croisement d Aloha et du floribunda jaune Yellow Cushion . Il forme un buisson de …   Wikipédia en Français

  • Abraham — V. «seno de Abraham». * * * Abraham. □ V. seno de Abraham. * * * Abraham (en hebreo, אַבְרָהָם, en árabe, ابراهيم, Ibrāhīm), es uno de los patriarcas del pueblo de Israel; según la Biblia, debió de nacer en Ur de los caldeos, en la desembocadura… …   Enciclopedia Universal

  • Abraham — /ay breuh ham , heuhm/, n. 1. the first of the great Biblical patriarchs, father of Isaac, and traditional founder of the ancient Hebrew nation: considered by Muslims an ancestor of the Arab peoples through his son Ishmael. 2. a male given name:… …   Universalium

  • Abraham Darby — est le nom de plusieurs membres d une famille britannique quaker qui a tenu un rôle clef dans le développement industriel pendant la révolution industrielle. Sommaire 1 Abraham Darby (1678 1717) 2 Abraham Darby II (1711 1763) 3 Abraham Darby II …   Wikipédia en Français


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