Coronado, Francisco Vázquez de


Coronado, Francisco Vázquez de
born с 1510, Salamanca, Spain
died Sept. 22, 1554, Mex.

Spanish explorer of the North American Southwest.

Appointed governor of Nueva Galicia in west-central Mexico, Coronado was sent north with a large force to locate and capture the legendary Seven Cities of Cíbola, reported to be fabulously wealthy. He was disillusioned to discover instead the Zuni pueblos of New Mexico and a seminomadic Indian tribe in Kansas. Though the treasure he sought eluded him, his explorers were the first Europeans to view the Grand Canyon, and he extended Spanish territory over huge areas of North America. His expedition's failure led to his indictment on his return to Mexico, but he was acquitted.

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▪ Spanish explorer
born c. 1510, Salamanca, Spain
died Sept. 22, 1554, Mexico
 Spanish explorer of the North American (North America) Southwest whose expeditions resulted in the discovery of many physical landmarks, including the Grand Canyon, but failed to find the treasure-laden cities he sought.

      Coronado went to New Spain (Mexico) with Antonio de Mendoza, the Spanish viceroy, in 1535 and earned early distinction in pacifying Indians. He was appointed governor of Nueva Galicia in 1538. Fray Marcos de Niza, sent north in 1539 by Mendoza to explore, had come back with reports of vast riches in the legendary Seven Golden Cities of Cíbola (Cíbola, Seven Cities of), which perhaps corresponded in reality to the Zuni Pueblos (in present-day New Mexico). Mendoza organized an ambitious expedition to make a more thorough exploration. It consisted of some 300 Spaniards, hundreds of Indians and native slaves, horses, and herds of sheep, pigs, and cattle, in addition to two ships under the command of Hernando de Alarcón, who sailed up the Gulf of California to discover the mouth of the Colorado River on Aug. 26, 1540. In February 1540 the main force under Coronado left Compostela and proceeded up the west coast of Mexico to Culiacán. A smaller unit rode north from there and encountered the Pueblos of Zuni in July 1540 but found no great wealth or treasure. Another side exploration made García López de Cárdenas the first white man to view the Grand Canyon of the Colorado River (in modern Arizona). The groups united to spend the winter on the Rio Grande at Kuana (near modern Santa Fe). Several Indian groups attempted to attack them there but were beaten back with severe reprisals.

      In the spring of 1541, the force moved into Palo Duro Canyon in Texas. There Coronado left most of his men and proceeded north with 30 horsemen to another supposedly fabulously wealthy country, Quivira (Kansas), only to find a seminomadic Indian village and disillusionment again. In 1542 Coronado returned to Mexico, reported his disappointing findings to Mendoza, and resumed his governorship of Nueva Galicia.

      An official inquiry, or residencia, normally called after an expedition, brought Coronado an indictment for his conduct; but the Mexican audiencia (a governing body in the Spanish colonies) found him innocent in February 1546. In his residencia following his governorship he was also indicted, and in this instance he was fined and lost a number of Indians from his landed estate. He retained his seat, however, on the Council of Mexico City until his death.

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Universalium. 2010.

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