Celsus, Aulus Cornelius


Celsus, Aulus Cornelius
flourished 1st century AD

Roman medical writer.

His famous treatise De medicina, a major source of knowledge of early medicine, shows that it was remarkably advanced, urging cleanliness and use of antiseptics, describing facial skin grafting, and stating the four cardinal signs of inflammation. The book's three parts discuss diseases requiring diet, drug, or surgical therapy.

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▪ Roman medical writer
flourished 1st century AD, Rome

      one of the greatest Roman medical writers, author of an encyclopaedia dealing with agriculture, military art, rhetoric, philosophy, law, and medicine, of which only the medical portion has survived. De medicina, now considered one of the finest medical classics, was largely ignored by contemporaries. It was discovered by Pope Nicholas V (1397–1455) and was among the first medical works to be published (1478) after the introduction of the printing press.

      Most remarkable in Celsus' work is the apparently advanced state of medical practice (medicine, history of) at the time. He recommended cleanliness and urged that wounds be washed and treated with substances now considered to be somewhat antiseptic, such as vinegar and thyme oil. He described plastic surgery of the face, using skin from other parts of the body. He enumerated the four cardinal signs of inflammation: heat, pain, redness, and swelling.

      Divided into three parts, according to the type of treatment demanded by various diseases—dietetic, pharmaceutical, and surgical—the treatise contains important accounts of heart disease, insanity, and the use of ligatures to stop arterial bleeding. Celsus also offered excellent descriptions of hydrotherapy and lateral lithotomy (for the removal of bladder stones). The historical portion of the work is of great importance; much of what is now known about Hellenistic medicine and Alexandrian anatomy and surgery comes primarily or exclusively from De medicina.

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Universalium. 2010.

Look at other dictionaries:

  • CELSUS, AULUS CORNELIUS° — (first half of the first century C.E.), Roman medical writer. He mentions a treatment on head fractures and, similarly, a prescription for arresting gangrene suggested by Judaeus, which may mean a Jew or a person of that name (De Medicina 5:19.… …   Encyclopedia of Judaism

  • Aulus Cornelius Celsus — (Lithografisches Porträt, 1865) Aulus Cornelius Celsus (* um 25 v. Chr.; † um 50) war ein römischer Enzyklopädist und einer der wichtigsten Medizinschriftsteller seiner Zeit. Umstritten ist, ob Celsus selbst als Arzt tätig war oder nur als… …   Deutsch Wikipedia

  • Aulus Cornelius Celsus — For other uses, see Celsus (disambiguation). Aulus Cornelius Celsus. Aulus Cornelius Celsus (ca 25 BC ca 50) was a Roman encyclopedist, known for his extant medical work, De Medicina, which is believed to be the only surviving section of a much… …   Wikipedia

  • Aulus Cornelius Celsus — Pour les articles homonymes, voir Celse. Aulus Cornelius Celsus Aulus Cornelius Celsus (Celse), né à Rome ou à Vérone, est un médecin de l antiquit …   Wikipédia en Français

  • Цельс, Авл Корнелий Цельс (Aulus Cornelius Celsus) — (I в. до н. э.), римский автор энциклопедического труда «Искусства» (сохранился трактат «О медицине») …   Большой Энциклопедический словарь

  • Cornelius Celsus — Aulus Cornelius Celsus Pour les articles homonymes, voir Celse. Aulus Cornelius Celsus Aulus Cornelius Celsus (Celse), né à Ro …   Wikipédia en Français

  • Celsus [2] — Celsus, Aulus Cornelius, röm. Arzt und Polyhistor im 1. Jahrh. n. Chr.; erhalten acht Bücher »De medicina«, Ausgabe von Védrènes (1876); deutsch von Scheller (1846) …   Kleines Konversations-Lexikon

  • Celsus [1] — Celsus (Aulus Cornelius), geb. zu Rom od. Verona, lebte ungefähr von 50 v. Chr. bis 20 v. Chr. Er schrieb unter Tiberius ein großes encyklopäd. Werk, de artibus das sämmtliche Wissenschaften seiner Zeit umfaßte, als Philosophie, Rhetorik,… …   Herders Conversations-Lexikon

  • Aulus — Several prominent ancient Romans had the praenomen Aulus:* Aulus Agerius or Numerius Negidius (a name for the plaintiff in a lawsuit) * Aulus Atilius Calatinus * Aulus Avilius Flaccus * Aulus Ofilius * Aulus Caecina Severus * Aulus Caecina… …   Wikipedia

  • Cornelius — /kawr neel yeuhs, nee lee euhs/; for 2, 3, also Ger. /kawrdd nay lee oos /, n. 1. Saint, died A.D. 253, Italian ecclesiastic: pope 251 253. 2. Peter von /pay teuhrdd feuhn/, 1783 1867, German painter. 3. a male given name: from a Roman family… …   Universalium


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