Carranza, Venustiano

Carranza, Venustiano
born Dec. 29, 1859, Cuatro Ciénegas, Mex.
died May 20/21, 1920, Tlaxcalantongo

First president of the post-Porfirio Díaz Mexican Republic (1917–20).

The son of a landowner, he was active in politics from 1877. In 1910 he joined the struggle of Francisco Madero against Díaz. A moderate and a nationalist, he favoured political but not social reform. Because he did little to implement the far-reaching reforms called for in the constitution of 1917, his presidency was plagued by social unrest and clashes with the more radical leaders Pancho Villa and Emiliano Zapata as well as by serious financial problems. His nationalism led him to oppose U.S. intervention in Mexican affairs, even when he stood to benefit from it. He is held responsible for Zapata's assassination and was himself murdered while fleeing an armed rebellion. See also Mexican Revolution.

Venustiano Carranza, c. 1910

Archivo Casasola

* * *

▪ president of Mexico
born December 29, 1859, Cuatro Ciénegas, Mexico
died May 20/21, 1920, Tlaxcalantongo
 a leader in the Mexican civil war following the overthrow of the dictator Porfirio Díaz. He became the first president of the new Mexican Republic. A moderate who was tainted by his association with Díaz and his alliance with newer forces of economic exploitation, Carranza opposed the sweeping changes that followed the revolution.

      The son of a landowner, Carranza became active in local and state politics in 1877. In 1910, as governor of Coahuila, he joined the struggle of Francisco Madero against Díaz and in 1913 led the forces against Victoriano Huerta, who had assassinated Madero. After Huerta fled in 1914, Carranza's Constitutionalist Army began to splinter. Rebels under the leadership of Pancho Villa (Villa, Pancho) and Emiliano Zapata (Zapata, Emiliano) opposed his provisional government, demanding immediate social reforms. He secured his position as provisional president, however, when his army, led by General Alvaro Obregón, defeated the forces of Villa at Celaya in April 1915.

      Carranza favoured political, but not social, reform. Only reluctantly did he accept the provisions of the 1917 constitution establishing basic reforms in landownership, control of natural resources, and labour and social legislation. When he became the constitutional president on May 1, 1917, he did little to effectuate those provisions. His term was marked by continued difficulties with Villa and Zapata, serious financial problems, and general social unrest brought on by his reluctance to institute far-reaching reforms.

      Carranza was an ardent nationalist and was involved in serious controversies with the United States. Earlier (April 1914) he had opposed the U.S. occupation of Veracruz, even though it was aimed at his enemy, Huerta; in March 1916 he had prevented the military expedition led by the U.S. general John J. Pershing from capturing Villa, who had raided Columbus, New Mexico; and he angered the United States by his efforts (1918) to bring his country's oil industry under Mexican control. He was instrumental in keeping Mexico neutral in World War I.

      When Carranza's term as president was due to end in December 1920, he attempted to force the election of his chosen successor, Ignacio Bonillas, despite opposition from his more radical generals. Obregón led an armed rebellion in April 1920, and Carranza fled the capital. When he headed for Veracruz with government records and treasure, his train was attacked. With a few followers, he fled on horseback into the mountains. On the night of May 20/21 he was betrayed and murdered.

* * *

Universalium. 2010.

Look at other dictionaries:

  • Carranza, Venustiano — ► (1859 1920) Político mexicano. A la muerte de Madero, se proclamó jefe del partido constitucional y en 1917 fue elegido presidente de la República. * * * (29 dic. 1859, Cuatro Ciénegas, México–20/21 may. 1920, Tlaxcalantongo). Primer presidente …   Enciclopedia Universal

  • Carranza,Venustiano — Car·ran·za (kə rănʹzə, kä ränʹsä), Venustiano. 1859 1920. Mexican revolutionary politician who was the first president (1915 1920) of the new Mexican Republic after the overthrow of dictator Porfirio Díaz (1911). * * * …   Universalium

  • Venustiano Carranza — Mandats Président du Mexique …   Wikipédia en Français

  • Venustiano Carranza — (* 29. Dezember 1859 in Cuatro Ciénegas, Coahuila; † 21. Mai 1920 in Tlaxcalantongo, Puebla) war von 1914 bis 1920 Präsident von Mexiko. Franci …   Deutsch Wikipedia

  • Carranza (disambiguation) — Carranza can refer to:;Places *Karrantza, a town in the Biscay province of northern Spain *Venustiano Carranza, D.F., a borough of Mexico City;People *Bartolomé Carranza (1503 76), Spanish theologian *Bruno Carranza Ramirez (1822 1891), president …   Wikipedia

  • Carranza (apellido) — Saltar a navegación, búsqueda Para otros usos, véase Carranza (desambiguación). El linaje de Carranza (o Karrantza en euskera) procede de Vizcaya, en el País Vasco y tuvo su primitiva casa solar en el Valle Carranza (Karrantza Harana, en euskera) …   Wikipedia Español

  • Carranza — (¿del lat. tardío «carcannum», collar?) f. Cada una de las puntas de hierro de la carlanca. * * * carranza. (Cf. carranca1). f. Cada una de las puntas de hierro de la carlanca. * * * Carranza, Bartolomé de Carranza, Eduardo …   Enciclopedia Universal

  • Venustiano Carranza — Infobox President | name=Venustiano Carranza nationality=Mexican office = President of Mexico term start=March 11, 1917 term end=May 21, 1920 predecessor=Victoriano Huerta successor=Adolfo de la Huerta birth date=birth date|1859|12|21|mf=y birth… …   Wikipedia

  • Venustiano Carranza (Distrito Federal) — Venustiano Carranza Delegación del D.F de México …   Wikipedia Español

  • Venustiano Carranza, D.F. — Venustiano Carranza   Delegación   Venustiano Carranza within the Federal District …   Wikipedia