- Buridan, Jean
born 1300, Béthune?, Francedied 1358French philosopher, logician, and scientific theorist.He studied under William of Ockham at the University of Paris and later taught there. According to his modified version of determinism, though one must choose what presents itself as the greater good, the will is free to delay reason's judgment by suggesting a more thorough inquiry into the worth of one's motives. The dilemma of a particular kind of moral choice, between two evidently identical alternatives, is illustrated by the celebrated allegory of "Buridan's ass." Among his achievements in mechanics was a revision of Aristotle's theory of motion; he developed a theory of impetus by which the mover imparts to the moved a power, proportional to the former's speed and mass, which keeps it moving. His studies of optical images prefigured modern developments in cinematics. In logic he explicated the doctrines of Aristotle and Peter of Spain (с 1210–77). His works include Summula de dialecta (1487) and Consequentie (1493).
* * *▪ French philosopher and scientistLatin Joannes Buridanusborn 1300, probably at Béthune, Francedied 1358Aristotelian philosopher, logician, and scientific theorist in optics and mechanics.After studies in philosophy at the University of Paris under the nominalist thinker William of Ockham (Ockham, William of), Buridan was appointed professor of philosophy there. He served as university rector in 1328 and in 1340, the year in which he condemned Ockham's views, an act that is sometimes called the first seed of theological skepticism. Buridan's own works were condemned and placed on the Index of Forbidden Books from 1474 to 1481 by partisans of Ockham.A defender of the principle of causality, Buridan asserted a modified version of traditional moral determinism, declaring that men must will what presents itself as the greater good but that the will is free to delay the reason's judgment by suggesting a more thorough inquiry into the value of motives. The dilemma of a particular kind of moral choice, between two evidently identical items, is illustrated by the celebrated allegory of “Buridan's ass,” though the animal mentioned in Buridan's commentary on Aristotle's De caelo (“On the Heavens”) is actually a dog, not an ass. His discussion centres on the method by which the dog chooses between two equal amounts of food placed before him. Discerning both a symmetry of information and a symmetry of preference about the two items, he concludes that the dog must choose at random; this outcome leads to the investigation of theories of probability.Among Buridan's achievements in mechanics was his revision of Aristotle's theory of motion, which had maintained that a thing is kept moving by the air surrounding it. Buridan developed a theory of impetus by which the mover imparts to the moved a power, proportional to the speed and mass, which keeps it moving. In addition, he correctly theorized that resistance of the air progressively reduces the impetus and that weight can add or detract from speed. His studies of optical images prefigured modern developments in cinematics. In logic he explicated doctrines of Aristotle, Ockham, and Peter of Spain. In addition to commentaries on Aristotle's Organon, Physics, De anima, Metaphysics, and Economics, his works include Summula de dialecta (1487) and Consequentie (1493).
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Buridan, Jean — • French scholastic philosopher of the fourteenth century, b. at Béthune, in the district of Atois towards the end of the thirteenth century; date of death unknown Catholic Encyclopedia. Kevin Knight. 2006 … Catholic encyclopedia
Buridan, Jean — (c. 1295–1358) French scholastic philosopher. Buridan was educated under Ockham and taught at Paris, where he was also rector of the university. Little is known directly of Buridan s life, although it is known that he climbed Mont Ventoux… … Philosophy dictionary
BURIDAN, JEAN — a scholastic doctor of the 14th century, born in Artois, and famous as the reputed author, though there is no evidence of it in his works, of the puzzle of the hungry and thirsty ass, called after him Buridan s Ass, between a bottle of hay and … The Nuttall Encyclopaedia
Buridan, Jean — (Joannes Buridanus) ► (¿1300 58?) Pensador medieval francés, de tendencia occamista. Como nominalista, prefirió la experiencia a la autoridad de Aristóteles y sometió a crítica las concepciones de la física aristotélica. En lo que se refiere al… … Enciclopedia Universal
Buridan — Buridan, Jean … Philosophy dictionary
Buridan — Buridan, Jean … Enciclopedia Universal
Buridan — Jean Buridan Jean Buridan, en latin Joannes Buridanus (1292 1363), philosophe français, docteur scolastique, fut l’instigateur du scepticisme religieux en Europe. Il fut, en Occident, le redécouvreur de la théorie de l impetus, vers 1340. Son… … Wikipédia en Français
Jean Buridan — Jean Buridan † Catholic Encyclopedia ► Jean Buridan French scholastic philosopher of the fourteenth century, b. at Béthune, in the district of Atois towards the end of the thirteenth century; date of death unknown. He studied at the… … Catholic encyclopedia
BURIDAN (J.) — BURIDAN JEAN (1300 env. apr. 1358) Recteur de l’université de Paris en 1328 et en 1340, commentateur d’Aristote et logicien. L’enseignement en logique de Jean Buridan (Summulae logicae ) dépend de celui de Pierre d’Espagne et de celui d’Ockham.… … Encyclopédie Universelle
Buridan — (Jean) (v. 1300 apr. 1358) philosophe scolastique, à Paris. Il aurait proposé ce sophisme: un âne (l âne de Buridan) placé à égale distance d un seau d eau et d un picotin d avoine ne sait choisir et en meurt … Encyclopédie Universelle