- Brooke Raj
(1841–1946) Dynasty of British rajas that ruled Sarawak (now a state in Malaysia) for a century.Sir James Brooke (1803–68) served with the British East India Company and fought in the first Anglo-Burmese War (1824–26) before using his family fortune to outfit a schooner and sail for the Indies (1838). He was awarded the title of raja of Sarawak by the sultan of Brunei for helping suppress a rebellion. Brooke established a secure government on Sarawak and was succeeded by his nephew, Sir Charles Anthony Johnson Brooke (1829–1917), who had spent much of his life on Sarawak, knew the local language, and respected local beliefs and customs. Under him, social and economic changes were limited. His eldest son, Sir Charles Vyner de Windt Brooke (1874–1963), succeeded him and began a modernization program after World War I. He terminated Brooke rule in 1946, ceding Sarawak to Britain.
* * *▪ British dynasty of Sarawak(1841–1946), dynasty of British rajas that ruled Sarawak (now a state in Malaysia) on the island of Borneo for a century.Sir James Brooke (b. April 29, 1803, Secrore, near Benares, India—d. June 11, 1868, Burrator, Devon, Eng.), first visited the Eastern Archipelago on an unsuccessful trading trip in 1834, after an early career that included military service with the British East India Company and participation in the first Anglo-Burmese war (1825). Intent on furthering European settlement in the East, he purchased and fitted out an armed schooner with the fortune left to him by his father, and sailed again for the Indies in 1838. At Singapore (founded 20 years earlier by Sir Stamford Raffles), Brooke learned that Pengiran Muda Hassim, chief minister of the sultanate of Brunei, was engaged in war with several rebel Iban (Sea Dayak) tribes in neighbouring Sarawak, nominally under Brunei control. The rebellion was crushed with Brooke's aid, and as a reward for his services the title of raja of Sarawak was conferred upon him in 1841, confirmed in perpetuity by the sultan of Brunei in 1846. For the next 17 years Brooke and a handful of English assistants made expeditions into the interior of Sarawak, partially suppressed the prevalence of headhunting, and established a secure government. He was knighted in 1848. Returning to England in 1863, he left the government of Sarawak in the hands of a nephew, who, on the death of Sir James in 1868, succeeded him.Sir Charles Anthony Johnson Brooke (b. June 3, 1829, Berrow, Somerset, Eng.—d. May 17, 1917, Cirencester, Gloucestershire), who adopted the surname Brooke, became the second raja. The government of Charles Brooke has been described as a benevolent autocracy. Charles himself had spent much of his life among the Iban people of Sarawak, knew their language, and respected their beliefs and customs. He made extensive use of down-river Malay chiefs as administrators, and encouraged selective immigration of Chinese agriculturalists, while the dominant indigenous group, the Ibans, were employed in military service. In general, social and economic changes were limited in impact, shielding the inhabitants from both the benefits and the hardships of Western-style development. He was knighted in 1888. The second raja was succeeded upon his death by his eldest son, Charles.Sir Charles Vyner de Windt Brooke (b. Sept. 26, 1874, London—d. May 9, 1963, London) was the third and last “white raja” (1917–46). He joined the Sarawak administration in 1897. After World War I, a boom in rubber and oil drew Sarawak further into the world economy, and for that and other reasons the state embarked on gradual modernization of its institutions. Public services were developed, a Sarawak penal code modelled on that of British India was introduced in 1924, and there was some extension of educational opportunity. Brooke was knighted in 1927. In September 1941, on the centenary of Brooke rule, the third raja proclaimed a constitution designed to establish self-government for Sarawak, but shortly afterward the state fell to the Japanese. When World War II was over, Vyner Brooke decided that Sarawak should be ceded to Great Britain, and, after a bitter family feud, he formally terminated Brooke rule on July 1, 1946.
* * *
Look at other dictionaries:
raj — /rahj/, n. (often cap.) (in India) rule, esp. the British rule prior to 1947. [1790 1800; < Hindi raj < Pali, Prakrit rajja < Skt rajya kingdom, rule] * * * (as used in expressions) Prayag Raj Brooke Raj Kapoor Raj panchayat raj * * * … Universalium
Brooke — /brook/, n. 1. Sir James, 1803 68, British soldier and adventurer: rajah of Sarawak. 2. Rupert, 1887 1915, English poet. * * * (as used in expressions) Brooke Raj Brooke Rupert Taney Roger Brooke Taussig Helen Brooke Alanbrooke of Brookeborough… … Universalium
Raj Patel — is a British academic, journalist, activist and writer. [ [http://www.rajpatel.org/node/3 RajPatel.com] About. Retrieved on March 30, 2008.] He is best known for his 2008 book, Stuffed and Starved: The Hidden Battle for the World Food System .… … Wikipedia
Bardhaman Raj — (also known as Burdwan Raj) flourished from 1657 to 1955 – for almost 300 years, first under the Mughals and then under the British. Eminent historians brush them aside as revenue collectors and petty zemindars. Technically, that is so. They… … Wikipedia
Isra and Mi'raj — For the Turkish film, see Night Journey (film). The Isra and Mi raj (Arabic: الإسراء والمعراج, al ’Isrā’ wal Mi‘rāğ), are the two parts of a Night Journey that, according to Islamic tradition, the Islamic prophet Muhammad took during a single… … Wikipedia
Malaysia — /meuh lay zheuh, sheuh/, n. 1. a constitutional monarchy in SE Asia: a federation, comprising the former British territories of Malaya, Sabah, and Sarawak: member of the Commonwealth of Nations. 20,376,235; 126,310 sq. mi. (327,143 sq. km). Cap … Universalium
Kingdom of Sarawak — Infobox Former Country native name = conventional long name = Kingdom of Sarawak common name = Sarawak continent = moved from Category:Asia to the Southeast Asia region = Southeast Asia empire = United Kingdom status = Protectorate status text =… … Wikipedia
White Rajahs — The White Rajahs refer to a dynasty that founded and ruled the Kingdom of Sarawak from 1841 to 1946, namely the Brookes, who came originally from England. A Rajah (also transliterated as Raja) was a king or princely ruler in the Indian… … Wikipedia
Sarawak — /seuh rah wahk, wah/, n. a state in the federation of Malaysia, on NW Borneo: formerly a British crown colony (1946 63) and British protectorate (1888 1946). 977,013; ab. 50,000 sq. mi. (129,500 sq. km). Cap.: Kuching. * * * ▪ state, Malaysia… … Universalium
Brunei — Bruneian, adj., n. /broo nuy , nay /, n. a sultanate under British protection on the NW coast of Borneo: formerly a British protectorate; gained independence 1984. 307,616; 2220 sq. mi. (5750 sq. km). Cap.: Bandar Seri Begawan. Official name,… … Universalium