- Boxer Rebellion
Officially supported peasant uprising in 1900 in China that attempted to drive all foreigners from the country."Boxer" was the English name given to a Chinese secret society that practiced boxing and calisthenic rituals in the belief that it would make its members impervious to bullets. Support for them grew in northern China during the late 19th century, when China's people were suffering from growing economic impoverishment and the country was forced to grant humiliating concessions to Western powers. In June 1900, after Boxers had killed Chinese Christians and Westerners, an international relief force was dispatched to quell the attacks. The empress dowager, Cixi, ordered imperial forces to block its advance; the conflict escalated, hundereds of people were killed, and the matter was not resolved until August, when Beijing was captured and sacked. Hostilities were ended with a protocol (1901) requiring China to pay a large indemnity to 11 countries. Britain and the U.S. later returned much of their reparations, the U.S. using its portion to further Chinese higher education. See also U.S. Open Door policy.
* * *▪ Chinese historyofficially supported peasant uprising of 1900 that attempted to drive all foreigners from China. “Boxers” was a name that foreigners gave to a Chinese secret society known as the Yihequan (“Righteous and Harmonious Fists”). The group practiced certain boxing and calisthenic rituals in the belief that this made them invulnerable. It was thought to be an offshoot of the Eight Trigrams Society (Baguajiao), which had fomented rebellions against the Qing dynasty in the late 18th and early 19th centuries. Their original aim was the destruction of the dynasty and also of the Westerners who had a privileged position in China.In the late 19th century, because of growing economic impoverishment, a series of unfortunate natural calamities, and unbridled foreign aggression in the area, the Boxers began to increase their strength in the provinces of North China. In 1898 conservative, antiforeign forces won control of the government and persuaded the Boxers to drop their opposition to the Qing dynasty and unite with it in destroying the foreigners. The governor of the province of Shandong began to enroll Boxer bands as local militia groups, changing their name from Yihequan to Yihetuan (“Righteous and Harmonious Militia”), which sounded semiofficial. Many of the Qing officials at this time apparently began to believe that Boxer rituals actually did make them impervious to bullets, and, in spite of protests by the Western powers, they and Cixi, the ruling empress dowager, continued to encourage the group.Christian missionary activities helped provoke the Boxers; Christian converts flouted traditional Chinese ceremonies and family relations; and missionaries pressured local officials to side with Christian converts—often from the lower classes of Chinese society—in local lawsuits and property disputes. By late 1899 the Boxers were openly attacking Chinese Christians and Western missionaries. By May 1900, Boxer bands were roaming the countryside around the capital at Beijing. Finally, in early June an international relief force of 2,100 men was dispatched from the northern port of Tianjin to Beijing. On June 13 the empress dowager ordered imperial forces to block the advance of the foreign troops, and the small relief column was turned back. Meanwhile, in Beijing the Boxers burned churches and foreign residences and killed suspected Chinese Christians on sight. On June 17 the foreign powers seized the Dagu forts on the coast in order to restore access from Beijing to Tianjin. The next day the empress dowager ordered that all foreigners be killed. The German minister was murdered, and the other foreign ministers and their families and staff, together with hundreds of Chinese Christians, were besieged in their legation quarters and in the Roman Catholic cathedral in Beijing.Imperial viceroys in the central Yangtze River Valley and in South China ignored government orders and suppressed antiforeign outbreaks in their jurisdiction. They thus helped establish the myth that the war was not the policy of the Chinese government but was a result of a native uprising in the northeast, the area to which the disorders were mainly confined.On August 14, 1900, an international force finally captured Beijing, relieving the foreigners and Christians besieged there since June 20. While foreign troops looted the capital, the empress dowager and her court fled to Xi'an, leaving behind a few imperial princes to conduct the negotiations. After extensive discussions, a protocol was finally signed in September 1901, ending the hostilities and providing for reparations to be made to the foreign powers.
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Boxer Rebellion — 1900, a name based on mistranslation of Chinese xenophobic society I He T uan, Righteous Harmony Band, rendered by British as I He Ch uan Righteous Uniting Fists, and so associated with the pugilistic BOXER (Cf. boxer) … Etymology dictionary
Boxer Rebellion — Infobox Military Conflict conflict= The Boxer Rebellion partof=| campaign= caption=Boxer forces in Tianjin date=2 November 1899–7 September 1901 place=China casus=Unequal Treaties, discontent of continuing Western and Japanese encroachment in… … Wikipedia
Boxer Rebellion — /bɒksə rəˈbɛljən/ (say boksuh ruh belyuhn) noun an unsuccessful rebellion in Beijing in 1900 of members of a nationalistic Chinese secret society (the Boxers) against foreign interests in China … Australian English dictionary
Boxer Rebellion — rebelling by a faction of the Chinese people against western presence in China in 1900 … English contemporary dictionary
Boxer Rebellion Indemnity Scholarship Program — The Boxer Rebellion Indemnity Scholarship Program (zh cp|c=庚子賠款獎學金|p=Gēngzǐ Péikuǎn Jiǎngxuéjīn) was a scholarship program funded by Boxer Rebellion indemnity money paid to the United States that provided for Chinese students to study in the U.S … Wikipedia
The Boxer Rebellion (groupe) — The Boxer Rebellion Pays d’origine Grande Bretagne Genre musical Indie rock Années d activité 2001 aujourd hui … Wikipédia en Français
List of Medal of Honor recipients for the Boxer Rebellion — This is a list of United States military personnel who received the Medal of Honor for their actions during the Boxer Rebellion.The Boxer Movement or Boxer Rebellion was a Chinese uprising from November 1899 to September 7, 1901, against foreign… … Wikipedia
List of Protestant missionaries killed during the Boxer Rebellion — The following individuals were among the China Martyrs of 1900. China Inland Mission* List of China Inland Mission missionaries killed during the Boxer Rebellion Society for Propagation of the Gospel * Rev. H. V. Norman * Rev. C. Robinson English … Wikipedia
List of China Inland Mission missionaries killed during the Boxer Rebellion — Martyred Missionaries of the China Inland Mission in 1900 Missionaries serving with the C.I.M. who were killed during the Boxer Crisis In 1900, attacks took place across China in connection with the Boxer Rebellion which targeted Christians and… … Wikipedia
Boxer — may refer to: *A boxing competitor *Boxer Codex, a manuscript written circa 1595 containing vivid illustrations depicting the inhabitants of the Philippines at the time of their contact with Spaniards. *Boxer (dog), a breed of dog *Boxer engine,… … Wikipedia