Bonaparte, Joseph


Bonaparte, Joseph
born Jan. 7, 1768, Corte, Corsica
died July 28, 1844, Florence, Tuscany, Italy

French lawyer, diplomat, and soldier.

Elder brother of Napoleon, he served during Napoleon's reign as king of Naples (1806–08), where he abolished feudalism, reformed the monastic orders, and reorganized the judicial, financial, and educational systems. He was named king of Spain in 1808, but his attempts at reform there were less successful. In 1813 he abdicated and returned to France. After Napoleon's defeat at Waterloo, Joseph lived in the U.S. (1815–32) and later settled in Italy.

* * *

▪ king of Spain and Naples
original Italian  Giuseppe Buonaparte 
born January 7, 1768, Corte, Corsica
died July 28, 1844, Florence, Tuscany, Italy

      lawyer, diplomat, soldier, and Napoleon I's (Napoleon I) eldest surviving brother, who was successively king of Naples (1806–08) and king of Spain (1808–13).

      Like his brothers, Joseph embraced the French republican cause and, with the victory of Corsican patriot Pasquale Paoli, was forced to leave Corsica to seek refuge in France. In 1796 he accompanied Napoleon in the early part of his Italian campaign and had some part in the negotiations with Sardinia that led to the armistice of Cherasco. He then took part in the French expedition for the recovery of Corsica and assisted in the reorganization of the island. He was appointed by the Directory minister to the court of Parma (1797) and then to Rome. Late in 1797 he returned to Paris and became one of the members for Corsica in the Council of Five Hundred.

      Joseph did little in the coup d'état of 18 Brumaire (November 9, 1799). He was a member of the Council of State and of the Corps Législatif, and he concluded at Mortfontaine a convention with the United States (1800). He also presided over negotiations leading to the Treaty of Lunéville with Austria (1801); and he was one of those who represented France in discussions with the British envoy, Lord Cornwallis, that led to the treaty of Amiens (1802), which marked Napoleon's total pacification of Europe. A year later, however, relations between England and France were severed, and Joseph's diplomatic efforts proved to have been in vain.

      On the question of the consolidation of Napoleon's power as first consul for life (August 1, 1802) with the power to nominate his own successor, the brothers disagreed. As Napoleon had no heir, Joseph as eldest brother claimed to be recognized as heir, while Napoleon wished to recognize the son of Louis Bonaparte. On the proclamation of the French empire (May 1804) the friction became acute. Joseph refused Napoleon's offer to make him king of Lombardy if he would waive all claim of succession to the French throne.

      After acting for a year as chief of the French government while Napoleon was in Germany, Joseph was sent to Naples (Naples, Kingdom of) to expel the Bourbon dynasty (1806). Proclaimed king of Naples by imperial decree later the same year, he abolished the relics of feudalism, reformed the monastic orders, and reorganized the judicial, financial, and educational systems.

      From 1808 Napoleon became increasingly dissatisfied with Joseph's conduct. Called away from Naples to become king of Spain, Joseph was forced to leave Madrid hastily when Spanish insurgents defeated French forces at Baylen. He was reinstated by Napoleon at the close of 1808 and thereafter was kept in a subordinate position that led him on four occasions to offer to abdicate.

      On March 30, 1814, when the troops of the allies reached Paris, Joseph fled, having left Marshal Marmont to make a truce with the assailants of Paris if they should be in overpowering strength. He played only an insignificant role in the Hundred Days (1815). After Napoleon's surrender at Rochefort, Joseph went to the United States and in 1830 pleaded for the recognition of the claims of Napoleon's son, the duke of Reichstadt, to the French throne. He afterward visited England and for a time resided in Genoa and then in Florence, where he died.

* * *


Universalium. 2010.

Look at other dictionaries:

  • BONAPARTE (JOSEPH) — BONAPARTE JOSEPH (1768 1844) roi de Naples (1806 1808) puis d’Espagne (1808 1813) Boursier au collège d’Autun, avocat en Corse, candidat malheureux à la Constituante puis à la Législative, antipaoliste réfugié à Marseille (où il fait un mariage… …   Encyclopédie Universelle

  • Bonaparte, Joseph — (1768–1844)    Napoleon Bonaparte ’s eldest brother, best known for his time as king of Spain (1808–1813) during the French occupation of the Iberian Peninsula. Joseph was never accepted by his new subjects, failed to control more than a fraction …   Encyclopedia of the Age of Imperialism, 1800–1914

  • Bonaparte, Joseph — (1768 1844)    king of Spain, brother of Napoléon I    Born in Corte, Corsica, the son of maria letizia ramolino and carlo maria bonaparte, and the older brother of napoléon i, Joseph Bonaparte served as deputy for Corsica to the Council of Five… …   France. A reference guide from Renaissance to the Present

  • Joseph Ier d'Espagne — Joseph Bonaparte Pour les articles homonymes, voir Bonaparte. Joseph Ier …   Wikipédia en Français

  • Joseph I. (Spanien) — Joseph Bonaparte als König von Spanien Joseph Bonaparte (* 7. Januar 1768 in Corte (Korsika); † 28. Juli 1844 in Florenz), eigentlich Giuseppe Buonaparte, war der älteste Bruder Napoléons und wurde von ihm erst zum König von Neapel (1806–1808)… …   Deutsch Wikipedia

  • Joseph I. — Joseph oder auch Josef hießen folgende Herrscher: Inhaltsverzeichnis 1 Joseph I./II. 2 Joseph + weitere Namen 3 Kirchliche Herrscher 4 Nichtregenten // …   Deutsch Wikipedia

  • Joseph II — Joseph oder auch Josef hießen folgende Herrscher: Inhaltsverzeichnis 1 Joseph I./II. 2 Joseph + weitere Namen 3 Kirchliche Herrscher 4 Nichtregenten // …   Deutsch Wikipedia

  • Joseph Charles Mathieu de Saint-Maurice — Joseph Charles Maurice Mathieu de La Redorte Le comte Joseph Charles Maurice Mathieu de La Redorte est un homme politique français né à Paris le 20 mars 1803, mort dans la même ville le 21 janvier 1886. Sommaire 1 Biographie 2 Références 2.1… …   Wikipédia en Français

  • Joseph Charles Mathieu de la Redorte — Joseph Charles Maurice Mathieu de La Redorte Le comte Joseph Charles Maurice Mathieu de La Redorte est un homme politique français né à Paris le 20 mars 1803, mort dans la même ville le 21 janvier 1886. Sommaire 1 Biographie 2 Références 2.1… …   Wikipédia en Français

  • Joseph Charles Maurice Mathieu De La Redorte — Le comte Joseph Charles Maurice Mathieu de La Redorte est un homme politique français né à Paris le 20 mars 1803, mort dans la même ville le 21 janvier 1886. Sommaire 1 Biographie 2 Références 2.1 Source …   Wikipédia en Français


Share the article and excerpts

Direct link
Do a right-click on the link above
and select “Copy Link”

We are using cookies for the best presentation of our site. Continuing to use this site, you agree with this.