- Biddle, John
died Sept. 22, 1662, LondonFather of English Unitarianism.He studied at the University of Oxford and became master of a free school in Gloucester. In 1644 he wrote Twelve Arguments Drawn Out of Scripture, denying the deity of the Holy Spirit. When the manuscript reached church authorities, he was arrested and imprisoned for two years. After its publication in 1647 he was again detained, and copies of the book were burned. His later writings attacked the doctrine of the Holy Trinity. Freed from a third imprisonment in 1652, he began to meet for worship with his adherents, who came to be called Unitarians. After Biddle published his Two-Fold Catechism (1654), Oliver Cromwell prevented his execution by exiling him to the Scilly Isles. He returned in 1658; in 1662 he was again put in prison, where he died.
* * *▪ English theologianborn 1615, Wotton-under-Edge, Gloucestershire, Eng.died Sept. 22, 1662, Londoncontroversial lay theologian who was repeatedly imprisoned for his anti-Trinitarian views and who became known as the father of English Unitarianism (Unitarianism and Universalism).Biddle was educated at the grammar school of his native town in Gloucestershire and at Magdalen Hall, Oxford, being subsequently appointed to the mastership of the free school in Gloucester. His reputation as a heretic in Anglican eyes originated with his manuscript of about 1644, Twelve Arguments Drawn out of Scripture, Wherein the Commonly Received Opinion Touching the Deity of the Holy Spirit Is Clearly and Fully Refuted, which was given to magistrates by a treacherous friend.In 1645 Biddle was summoned before the parliamentary committee, then sitting at Gloucester, and committed to prison. He was released on bail in 1647, but the publication of his manuscript the same year brought another parliamentary inquiry. Biddle was once again taken into custody, and his Twelve Arguments was seized and burned. Two additional tracts were subsequently suppressed for attacking the doctrine that the three Persons of the Trinity—Father, Son, and Holy Ghost—were coequal. Biddle chose to elevate the Father and to consider the other two Persons as subordinate to him. Under pressure from the Westminster Assembly, originally convened to reform the Church of England, Parliament in 1648 made this heresy a cause for the death penalty, but influential friends made it possible for Biddle to live in Staffordshire under surveillance until 1652, when he was again imprisoned.Freed in the same year under the protectorate of Oliver Cromwell (Cromwell, Oliver), Biddle and his adherents, called Biddellians, or Unitarians, began to meet regularly for Sunday worship. For the resemblance of their views to those of the Italian anti-Trinitarian Faustus Socinus (1539–1604), they were also known as Socinians. Soon after Biddle's translation of a biography by S. Przypkowski (Life of Socinus, 1653) and publication of his own Two-Fold Catechism (1654), Biddle was summoned before Parliament in December 1654 and imprisoned; his Catechism was burned by the common hangman. When Parliament was dissolved the next month, Biddle was free briefly but was then rearrested and tried for his heresy. Reluctant to see him executed, Cromwell rescued Biddle and sent him to one of the Scilly Isles in October 1655. In 1658 some of Biddle's friends sought and obtained his release, and he retired to the country to teach. On his return to London as a preacher in 1662 he was again arrested and fined £100. Unable to pay, he was immediately confined to prison, where he died.
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Biddle, John — (1615, Wotton under Edge, Gloucestershire, Inglaterra–22 sep. 1662, Londres). Padre del unitarismo inglés. Estudió en la Universidad de Oxford y ejerció como maestro en una escuela gratuita en Gloucester. En 1644 escribió Doce argumentos, en la… … Enciclopedia Universal
Biddle,John — Bid·dle (bĭdʹl), John. 1615 1662. English theologian and founder of English Unitarianism who was several times imprisoned for his rejection of Trinitarian doctrine. * * * … Universalium
BIDDLE, JOHN — a Socinian writer in the time of Charles I. and the Commonwealth; much persecuted for his belief, and was imprisoned, but released by Cromwell; regarded as the founder of English Unitarianism; author of a Confession of Faith concerning the… … The Nuttall Encyclopaedia
John Biddle (Politiker) — John Biddle John Biddle (* 2. März 1792 in Philadelphia, Pennsylvania; † 25. August 1859 in White Sulphur Springs, Virginia) war ein US amerikanischer Politiker. Zwischen 1829 und 1831 vertrat er das Michigan Terr … Deutsch Wikipedia
John Johnston Parker — (rechts) mit Francis Biddle John Johnston Parker (* 20. November 1885 in Monroe, North Carolina; † 17. März 1958 in Washington D.C.) war ein US amerikanischer Richter. Nach Ende des Zweit … Deutsch Wikipedia
John J. Parker — (derecha) junto a Francis Biddle. John Johnston Parker. (Monroe, Carolina del Norte, 20 de noviembre de 1885 17 de marzo de 1958) fue un juez estadounidense. Estudió Derecho en la Universidad de Carolina del Norte, donde finalizó sus estudios en… … Wikipedia Español
Biddle — /bid l/, n. 1. Francis, 1886 1968, U.S. attorney general 1941 45. 2. John, 1615 62, English theologian: founder of English Unitarianism. 3. Nicholas, 1786 1844, U.S. financier. * * * (as used in expressions) Biddle James Biddle John Biddle… … Universalium
Biddle — (as used in expressions) Biddle, James Biddle, John Biddle, Nicholas … Enciclopedia Universal
john — /jon/, n. Slang. 1. a toilet or bathroom. 2. (sometimes cap.) a fellow; guy. 3. (sometimes cap.) a prostitute s customer. [generic use of the proper name] * * * I known as John Lackland born Dec. 24, 1167, Oxford, Eng. died Oct. 18/19, 1216,… … Universalium
John — /jon/, n. 1. the apostle John, believed to be the author of the fourth Gospel, three Epistles, and the book of Revelation. 2. See John the Baptist. 3. (John Lackland) 1167? 1216, king of England 1199 1216; signer of the Magna Carta 1215 (son of… … Universalium