Assad, Ḥāfiẓ al-

Assad, Ḥāfiẓ al-
born Oct. 6, 1930, Qardāḥa, Syria
died June 10, 2000, Damascus

President of Syria (1971–2000).

He joined the Bath Party in 1946 and in 1955 became an air force pilot. He became air force commander (1963) after helping the Baʽthists gain power. After participating in a military coup in 1966, he became minister of defense. He led a coup in 1970 to replace his political mentor, Ṣalāḥ al-Jadīd, as Syria's leader. He joined Egypt in a surprise attack on Israel (1973) but nearly 20 years later (1991) participated in peace negotiations with Israel in an effort to regain the Golan Heights, taken by Israel in the Six-Day War of 1967. A longtime foe of Iraqi leader Saddām Hussein, he supported the Western alliance against Iraq in the Persian Gulf War (1990–91). He was succeeded by his son Bashshār.

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▪ president of Syria
Ḥafiz also spelled  Hafez 
born October 6, 1930, Qardāḥa, Syria
died June 10, 2000, Damascus

      president of Syria (1971–2000) who brought stability to the country and established it as a powerful presence in the Middle East.

      Born into a poor family of ʿAlawites, a minority Islamic sect, Assad joined the Syrian wing of the Baʿth Party in 1946 as a student activist. In 1952 he entered the Ḥimṣ Military Academy, graduating three years later as an air force pilot. While exiled to Egypt (1959–61) during Syria's short-lived union with Egypt in the United Arab Republic, Assad and other military officers formed a committee to resurrect the fortunes of the Syrian Baʿth Party. After the Baʿthists took power in 1963, Assad became commander of the air force. In 1966, after taking part in a coup that overthrew the civilian leadership of the party and sent its founders into exile, he became minister of defense. During Assad's ministry Syria lost the Golan Heights to Israel in the Six-Day War (Arab-Israeli wars) (June 1967), dealing Assad a blow that shaped much of his future political career. Assad then engaged in a protracted power struggle with Salah al-Jadid—chief of staff of the armed forces, Assad's political mentor, and effective leader of Syria—until finally in November 1970 Assad seized control, arresting Jadid and other members of the government. He became prime minister and in 1971 was elected president.

      Assad set about building up the Syrian military with Soviet aid and gaining the loyalty of the Syrian populace with public works funded by Arab donors and international lending institutions. Political dissenters were eliminated by arrest, torture, and execution, and when the Muslim Brotherhood mounted a rebellion in Hamāh in 1982, Assad ruthlessly suppressed it at a cost of some 20,000 lives and the near-destruction of the city. In foreign affairs Assad tried to establish Syria as a leader of the Arab world. A new alliance with Egypt culminated in a surprise attack on Israel in October 1973, but Egypt's unexpected cessation of hostilities exposed Syria to military defeat and earned Egypt's president, Anwar el-Sadat (Sādāt, Anwar el-), Assad's enduring resentment. In 1976, with Lebanon racked by a bloody civil war, Assad dispatched several divisions to that country and secured their permanent presence there as part of a peacekeeping force sponsored by the Arab League. After Israel's invasion and occupation of southern Lebanon in 1982–85, Assad was able to reassert control of the country, eventually compelling Lebanese Christians to accept constitutional changes granting Muslims equal representation in the government. Assad also apparently aided radical Palestinian and Muslim terrorist groups based in Lebanon and Syria.

      His rivalry with the Iraqi wing of the Baʿth Party underlay Assad's long-standing enmity toward the Iraqi leader Saddam Hussein (Ṣaddām Ḥussein). Assad supported Iran in its war against Iraq (1980–90), and he readily joined the U.S.-led alliance against Iraq in the Persian Gulf War of 1990–91. This cooperation resulted in more cordial relations with Western governments, which previously had condemned his sponsoring of terrorism. Assad sought to establish peaceful relations with Israel in the mid-1990s, but his repeated call for the return of the Golan Heights stalled the talks. In 1998 he cultivated closer ties with Iraq in light of Israel's growing strategic partnership with Turkey.

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Universalium. 2010.

См. также в других словарях:

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  • Hafiz Al-Assad — Assad ca. 1987 Hafiz al Assad (arabisch ‏حافظ الأسد‎, DMG Ḥāfiẓ al Assad, auch Hafis el Assad) (* 6. Oktober 1930 in Kardaha; † 10. Juni 2000 in Damaskus) war Präsid …   Deutsch Wikipedia

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  • Baschar al Assad — Baschar Hafiz al Assad (* 11. September 1965 in ad Darbasiya; arabisch ‏بشار حافظ الأسد‎, DMG Baššār Ḥāfiẓ al Assad), ist seit 2000 Präsident (Staatschef) von Syrien. Der Sohn des ehemaligen Präsidenten Hafiz al Assad studie …   Deutsch Wikipedia

  • Bashar Assad — Baschar al Assad Baschar Hafiz al Assad (* 11. September 1965 in ad Darbasiya; arabisch ‏بشار حافظ الأسد‎, DMG Baššār Ḥāfiẓ al Assad), ist seit 2000 Präsident (Staatschef) von Syrien. Der Sohn des ehemaligen Präsidenten Hafiz al Assad studie …   Deutsch Wikipedia

  • Bashar al-Assad — Baschar al Assad Baschar Hafiz al Assad (* 11. September 1965 in ad Darbasiya; arabisch ‏بشار حافظ الأسد‎, DMG Baššār Ḥāfiẓ al Assad), ist seit 2000 Präsident (Staatschef) von Syrien. Der Sohn des ehemaligen Präsidenten Hafiz al Assad studie …   Deutsch Wikipedia


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