 Aryabhata I

born 476, possibly Ashmaka or Kusumapura, IndiaAstronomer and the earliest Indian mathematician whose work survives.He composed at least two works, Aryabhatiya (с 499) and the now lost Aryabhatasiddhanta, which circulated mainly in the northwest of India and influenced the development of Islamic astronomy. Written in verse couplets, Aryabhatiya deals with mathematics and astronomy. Topics include prediction of solar and lunar eclipses and an explicit statement that the apparent westward motion of the stars is due to the spherical Earth's rotation about its axis. Aryabhata also correctly ascribed the luminosity of the Moon and planets to reflected sunlight. The Indian government named its first satellite Aryabhata (launched 1975) in his honour.
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▪ Indian astronomer and mathematicianalso called Aryabhata the Elderborn 476, possibly Ashmaka or Kusumapura, Indiaastronomer and the earliest Indian mathematician whose work and history are available to modern scholars. Known as Aryabhata I or Aryabhata the Elder to distinguish him from a 10thcentury Indian mathematician of the same name, he flourished in Kusumapura—near Patalipurta (Patna), then the capital of the Gupta dynasty—where he composed at least two works, Aryabhatiya (c. 499) and the now lost Aryabhatasiddhanta. Aryabhatasiddhanta circulated mainly in the northwest of India and, through the Sāsānian dynasty (224–651) of Iran, had a profound influence on the development of Islamic astronomy. Its contents are preserved to some extent in the works of Varahamihira (flourished c. 550), Bhaskara I (flourished c. 629), Brahmagupta (598–c. 665), and others. It is one of the earliest astronomical works to assign the start of each day to midnight.Aryabhatiya was particularly popular in South India, where numerous mathematicians over the ensuing millennium wrote commentaries. Written in verse couplets, this work deals with mathematics and astronomy. Following an introduction that contains astronomical tables and Aryabhata's system of phonemic number notation, the work is characteristically divided into three sections: Ganita (“Mathematics”), Kalakriya (“Time Calculations”), and Gola (“Sphere”).In Ganita Aryabhata names the first 10 decimal places and gives algorithms for obtaining square and cubic roots, utilizing the decimal number system. Then he treats geometric measurements—employing 62,832/20,000 (= 3.1416) for π—and develops properties of similar rightangled triangles and of two intersecting circles. Utilizing the Pythagorean theorem, he obtained one of the two methods for constructing his table of sines. He also realized that secondorder sine difference is proportional to sine. Mathematical series, quadratic equations (quadratic equation), compound interest (involving a quadratic equation), proportions (ratios), and the solution of various linear equations (linear equation) are among the arithmetic and algebraic topics included. Aryabhata's general solution for linear indeterminate equations, which Bhaskara I called kuttakara (“pulverizer”), consisted of breaking the problem down into new problems with successively smaller coefficients—essentially the Euclidean algorithm and related to the method of continued fractions (continued fraction).With Kalakriya Aryabhata turned to astronomy—in particular, treating planetary motion along the ecliptic. The topics include definitions of various units of time, eccentric and epicyclic models of planetary motion (see Hipparchus for earlier Greek models), planetary longitude corrections for different terrestrial locations, and a theory of “lords of the hours and days” (an astrological concept used for determining propitious times for action).Aryabhatiya ends with spherical astronomy in Gola, where he applied plane trigonometry to spherical geometry by projecting points and lines on the surface of a sphere onto appropriate planes. Topics include prediction of solar and lunar eclipses (eclipse) and an explicit statement that the apparent westward motion of the stars is due to the spherical Earth's rotation about its axis. Aryabhata also correctly ascribed the luminosity of the Moon and planets to reflected sunlight.The Indian government named its first satellite Aryabhata (launched 1975) in his honour.Takao Hayashi* * *
Universalium. 2010.
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Aryabhata — I. Aryabhata I. (Devanagari: आर्यभट, Āryabhaṭa; * 476 in Ashmaka; † um 550) war ein bedeutender indischer Mathematiker und Astronom. Geboren in Ashmaka, lebte er später in Kusumapura, das später Bhaskara I. (629) als Pataliputra, das heutige… … Deutsch Wikipedia
Aryabhata II — Āryabhaṭa II (c. 920 – c. 1000) was an Indian mathematician and astronomer, and the author of the Maha Siddhanta. The numeral II is given to him to distinguish him from the earlier and more influential Āryabhaṭa I. Contents 1 Mahasidhanta 2… … Wikipedia
Aryabhata — Âryabhata Statue d Aryabhatta à l IUCAA, Pune. Âryabhata (आर्यभट) est le premier des grands astronomes de l âge classique de l Inde. Il naît en 476 à Ashmaka, mais passe l essentiel de sa vie à Kusumapura que l on identifie généralement comme… … Wikipédia en Français
Aryabhata — Saltar a navegación, búsqueda Para otros usos de este término, véase Aryabhata (satélite). Estatua de Aryabhata en India Aryabhata (hacia 476 550) fue el primer gran matemático y a … Wikipedia Español
Aryabhata — Aryabhata, Arjabhata, indischer Mathematiker und Astronom, * Kusumapura bei Patna 21. 3. 476, ✝ um 550. Sein Lehrgedicht »Aryabhatiya« enthält astronomische und mathematische Beiträge. Aryabhata gebrauchte als Erster die Sinusfunktion, löste… … UniversalLexikon
Aryabhata — For other uses, see Aryabhata (disambiguation). Āryabhaṭa Statue of Aryabhata on the grounds of IUCAA, Pune. As there is no known information regarding his appearance, any image of Aryabhata originates from an artist s conception. Born 476 … Wikipedia
Âryabhata — Statue d Aryabhata à l ICAA (en), Pune. Aryabhata ( … Wikipédia en Français
Aryabhata — (n. 476, posiblemente en Ashmaka o Kusumapura, India). Astrónomo y el más antiguo matemático indio cuya obra perdura. Autor de al menos dos obras, Aryabhatiya ( 499) y la ahora perdida Aryabhatasiddhanta, que circularon principalmente en el… … Enciclopedia Universal
Aryabhata — ▪ Indian space satellite first unmanned Earth satellite built by India. It was named for a prominent Indian astronomer and mathematician of the 5th century AD. The satellite was assembled at Peenya, near Bangalore, but was launched from… … Universalium
Aryabhata I — … Useful english dictionary