- Abdülhamid II
born Sept. 21, 1842, Constantinopledied Feb. 10, 1918, ConstantinopleSultan (1876–1909) of the Ottoman Empire under whose rule the Tanzimat reform movement reached its climax.After initially promoting the first Ottoman constitution (primarily to ward off foreign intervention), he suspended it 14 months later and ruled thereafter as a despot. He used Pan-Islamism to rally Muslim opinion outside his empire; the Hejaz Railway was built with foreign contributions. Discontent with his absolutist rule and resentment over European intervention in the Balkans resulted in his overthrow by the Young Turks in 1908. See also Mustafa Kemal Atatürk; Enver Pasha; Midhat Pasha.
* * *▪ Ottoman sultanborn Sept. 21, 1842, Constantinople [now Istanbul, Turkey]died Feb. 10, 1918, ConstantinopleOttoman sultan from 1876 to 1909, under whose autocratic rule the reform movement of Tanzimat (Reorganization) reached its climax and who adopted a policy of pan-Islāmism in opposition to Western intervention in Ottoman affairs.A son of Sultan Abdülmecid I, he came to the throne at the deposition of his mentally deranged brother, Murad V, on Aug. 31, 1876. He promulgated the first Ottoman constitution on Dec. 23, 1876, primarily to ward off foreign intervention at a time when the Turks' savage suppression of the Bulgarian uprising (May 1876) and Ottoman successes in Serbia and Montenegro had aroused the indignation of Western powers and Russia. After a disastrous war with Russia (1877), Abdülhamid was convinced that little help could be expected from the Western powers without their intrusion into Ottoman affairs. He dismissed the Parliament, which had met in March 1877, and suspended the constitution in February 1878. Thenceforth for 40 years he ruled from his seclusion at Yıldız Palace (in Constantinople), assisted by a system of secret police, an expanded telegraph network, and severe censorship.After the French occupation of Tunisia (1881) and assumption of power by the British in Egypt (1882), Abdülhamid turned for support to the Germans. In return, concessions were made to Germany, culminating in permission (1899) to build the Baghdad Railway. Eventually, the suppression of the Armenian revolt (1894) and the turmoil in Crete, which led to the Greco-Turkish War of 1897, once more resulted in European intervention.Abdülhamid used pan-Islāmism to solidify his internal absolutist rule and to rally Muslim opinion outside the empire, thus creating difficulties for European imperial powers in their Muslim colonies. The Hejaz Railway, financed by Muslim contributions from all over the world, was a concrete expression of his policy.Internally, the most far-reaching of his reforms were in education; 18 professional schools were established; Darülfünun, later known as the University of Istanbul, was founded (1900); and a network of secondary, primary, and military schools was extended throughout the empire. Also, the Ministry of Justice was reorganized, and railway and telegraph systems were developed.Discontent with Abdülhamid's despotic rule and resentment against European intervention in the Balkans, however, led to the military revolution of the Young Turks in 1908. After a short-lived reactionary uprising (April 1909), Abdülhamid was deposed, and his brother was proclaimed sultan as Mehmed V.Additional ReadingStudies of Abdülhamid include Edwin Pears, Life of Abdul Hamid (1917, reprinted 1973); and Joan Haslip, The Sultan: The Life of Abdul Hamid (1958, reprinted 1973).
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Abdulhamid II — Abdülhamid II Le Sultan Abdülhamid II vers 1890 Abdülhamid II (autres transcriptions : Abd ul Hamid, Abdülhemit, Abdul Hamid, Abd al Hamid II, Abdul Hamid, Abdül Hamîd) (né le 21 septembre 1842 à Constantinople mort le… … Wikipédia en Français
Abdülhamid I — Abdülhamid Ier Sultan Abdul Hamid I Abdülhamid Ier (né le 20 mars 1725 à Constantinople mort le 7 avril 1789 dans la même ville) fut sultan de l’Empire ottoman du 21 janvier 1774 au 7 avril 1789 … Wikipédia en Français
Abdulhamid — Abdulhamid, Sultan, Sohn Achmed III., geb. 1725. In seinem 6. Jahre sah er seinen Vater abgesetzt und gefangen; er theilte dieses Schicksal bis zu dem Tode seines Bruders Mustapha III. (1774). Da wurde er auf den Thron erhoben und schloß mit… … Herders Conversations-Lexikon
Abdûlhamid II — (1842 1918) sultan de 1876 à 1909. Le démembrement de l Empire ottoman commença sous son règne … Encyclopédie Universelle
Abdülhamid II. — Şehzade Abdülhamid im Jahr 1867 Abdülhamid II. (* 21. September 1842 in Istanbul; † 10. Februar 1918 ebenda) war vom 31. August 1876 bis zum 27. April 1909 Sultan des Osmanischen Reiches. Er war der zweite Sohn des Sultans Abdülmecid I. und… … Deutsch Wikipedia
Abdülhamid II — Le Sultan Abdülhamid II vers 1890 Abdülhamid II (autres transcriptions : Abd ul Hamid, Abdülhemit, Abdul Hamid, Abd al Hamid II, Abdul Hamid, Abdül Hamîd) (né le 21 septembre 1842 à Constantinople mort le 10 février… … Wikipédia en Français
Abdülhamid I. — Caliph Sultan Abdul Hamid I Khan Abdülhamid I. (* 20. März 1725; † 7. April 1789) war vom 21. Januar 1774 bis zu seinem Tode Sultan des Osmanischen Reiches. Sein Vater war Ahmed III.. Sein Nachfolger war sein Neffe Selim III.. Unter seinen Söhnen … Deutsch Wikipedia
Abdülhamid I — ▪ Ottoman sultan born March 20, 1725 died April 7, 1789 Ottoman sultan from 1774 to 1789 who concluded the war with Russia by signing the humiliating Treaty of Küçük Kaynarca (Küçük Kaynarca, Treaty of). By the terms of the treaty, Russia… … Universalium
Abdülhamīd II — biographical name 1842 1918 Ottoman sultan (1876 1909) … New Collegiate Dictionary
Abdülhamid II — (21 sep. 1842, Constantinopla–10 feb. 1918, Constantinopla). Sultán (1876–1909) del Imperio otomano. Bajo su gobierno, el movimiento reformista Tanzimat alcanzó su apogeo. Después de promover la primera constitución otomana (principalmente para… … Enciclopedia Universal