- Ḥafṣid dynasty
(с 13th–16th century) Berber dynasty.It was founded by a governor of the Almohad dynasty, Abū Zakariyyāʾ Yaḥyā, in north-central Africa с 1229. His son Mustanṣir (r. 1249–77) enlarged the empire to its peak of power and prestige. It had trade relations with Italian, Spanish, and Provençal communities despite the fact that it also ran pirate operations in the Mediterranean Sea. It resisted periodic invasions by the Marīnid dynasty. Dynastic struggles after 1452 weakened the Ḥafṣids. Spanish and Turkish forces later competed for the Ḥafṣid territory, and the Ottoman Empire incorporated its land into a province in 1574.
* * *▪ Berber dynastyalso called Banū ḤafṣAmazigh ( Berber) dynasty of the 13th–16th century in Ifrīqiyyah ( Tunisia and eastern Algeria), founded by the Almohad (Almohads) governor Abū Zakariyyāʾ Yaḥyā about 1229. In the 20 years of his rule, Abū Zakariyyāʾ kept the various tribal disputes and intrigues under control, ensured Ḥafṣid economic prosperity by trade agreements with Italian, Spanish, and Provençal communities, and expanded his power into northern Morocco and Spain. His son, al-Mustanṣir (Mustanṣir, al-) (1249–77), assumed the title of caliph and raised the prestige of the kingdom to its highest point. A period of internal dissension followed al-Mustanṣir's rule, Ḥafṣid unity being temporarily restored by Abū Ḥafṣ (1284–95), then by Abū Yaḥyā Abū Bakr (1318–46). Plagued by periodic Marīnid (Marīnid dynasty) invasions, the Ḥafṣid kingdom regained some of the lustre of al-Mustanṣir's era under Abū al-ʿAbbās (1370–94), who managed to pacify the country, though Ḥafṣid pirate activity continued to threaten international relations. Ḥafṣid power retained its vigour under ʿUthmān (1435–88), despite a rebellion (1435–52), but, after his reign, dynastic struggles heralded the decline of Ḥafṣid power. The country fell into Arab hands, and Spaniards later established themselves on the coast. Finally, a struggle between Spanish and Turkish forces ended with Turkish supremacy and the designation of Tunis as a paşalik (province) in 1574.The Ḥafṣid dynasty left several major legacies. Under the Ḥafṣids, Tunis was established as the capital of the kingdom; in addition, Ḥafṣid rule saw the development of the Maliki (Mālikīyah) school of law and its propagation as the foundation of social life.
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