zither


zither
zitherist, n.
/zith"euhr, zidh"-/, n.
a musical instrument, consisting of a flat sounding box with numerous strings stretched over it, that is placed on a horizontal surface and played with a plectrum and the fingertips.
[1840-50; < G < L cithara < Gk kithárá; see KITHARA]

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Plucked or struck stringed instrument with a shallow soundbox.

The common Austrian zither is roughly rectangular and has 30–40 strings; it is placed on the player's knees or on a table. Several melody strings pass over a fretted fingerboard; the player's left hand stops these strings, while the right hand plucks with the fingers and a thumb plectrum. Zither is also a generic term for stringed instruments, the strings of which are fastened across a frame that lacks any projecting neck or arms. The larger zither family thus includes instruments such as the Aeolian harp, autoharp, cimbalom, dulcimer, koto, and even the clavichord, harpsichord, and piano.

Zither made in Vienna

Courtesy of A.V. Ebblewhite, London; photograph, Behr Photography/EB Inc.

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 any stringed musical instrument whose strings are the same length as its soundboard. The European zither consists of a flat, shallow sound box across which some 30 or 40 gut or metal strings are stretched. The strings nearest the player run above a fretted fingerboard against which they are stopped by the left hand to provide melody notes; they are plucked by a plectrum worn on the right thumb. At the same time, the right-hand fingers pluck an accompaniment on the farther strings, which remain unstopped. The zither is placed across the player's knees or on a table.

      In the late 18th century two principal varieties of zither developed: the Salzburg zither, with a rounded side away from the player; and the Mittenwald zither, with both sides rounded. Tunings vary; a common tuning for the Salzburg zither is 5 melody strings tuned a′, d′, g′, g, and c; and 29 accompanying strings tuned in a cycle of fifths (C, G, D, A, etc.) through the 12 notes of the chromatic scale.

      Older zithers, such as the Alpine Scheitholt, have narrow rectangular sound boxes and fewer melody strings, their three or more bass strings providing merely a dronelike accompaniment on the tonic and dominant (first and fifth notes of the scale). Their age is unknown; the Scheitholt was described by the German composer Michael Praetorius (Praetorius, Michael) (1571–1621). They are found from Romania to Scandinavia and Iceland (e.g., the Swedish hummel) and were eventually influenced by the Austrian zither and the Norwegian langleik, in which the pitch of the drone strings is determined by movable bridges. A French form that died out in the 19th century is the miniature épinette des Vosges. With some of these instruments the melody strings are stopped by pressing them against the frets with a short metal bar, a way of playing preserved on the American variety, the Appalachian, or mountain, dulcimer. There are also zithers that are bowed rather than plucked, such as the Korean ajaeng.

      Zither is also a generic term for stringed instruments whose strings are fastened across a frame that lacks any projecting neck or arms. The resonator may be part of the body or may be attached to it.

      Instruments of the zither family assume a variety of forms. The body may be a flexible stick, as in the musical bow, or may be a rigid bar, as in many Indian and Southeast Asian and some African zithers. Bar zithers often have high frets; one-stringed varieties may be called monochords. The resonators of bar and stick zithers are usually gourds or the player's mouth. A zither body may be a tube with attached metal strings—as in the valiha of Madagascar and parts of Africa—or a tube halved lengthwise. The inanga of Burundi and Rwanda is a trough across which strings are laced. On tube zithers common in New Guinea and Southeast Asia, the strings are sliced from the bamboo of the tube and, remaining undetached at the ends, are given tension by bridges inserted under them at each end (idiochord zither). On most zithers, however, strings and body are of separate material (heterochord zither).

      Other important forms are a frame with a glued-on soundboard, as in psalteries, dulcimers, and their descendants, the stringed keyboard instruments; and a box, as with the Scheitholt and other European fretted zithers. The qānūn trapezoidal zither of the Middle East, North Africa, and parts of Asia—a type of psaltery—may have upwards of 70 strings, generally in courses of three. Large East Asian zithers, such as the Chinese qin and the Japanese koto, are called long zithers; their body shape is midway between a board and a half-tube.

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Universalium. 2010.

Look at other dictionaries:

  • Zither — Zither: Der Name des Musikinstruments wurde bereits in ahd. Zeit (ahd. zitara) aus lat. cithara »Zither« entlehnt, aus dem auch niederl. citer, schwed. cittra und (durch frz. Vermittlung) engl. zither stammen. Das lat. Wort seinerseits ist aus… …   Das Herkunftswörterbuch

  • Zither — ith er, n. [G. zither. See {Cittern}.] (Mus.) An instrument of music used in Austria and Germany. It has from thirty to forty wires strung across a shallow sounding board, which lies horizontally on a table before the performer, who uses both… …   The Collaborative International Dictionary of English

  • Zither — Sf std. (9. Jh.), ahd. zitara, cithara Entlehnung. Ist entlehnt aus l. cithara, dieses aus gr. kithárā, dessen Herkunft nicht sicher geklärt ist.    Ebenso nndl. citer, ne. zither, nfrz. cithare, nschw. cittra, nisl. sítar; Gitarre. ✎ Relleke… …   Etymologisches Wörterbuch der deutschen sprache

  • zither — (n.) stringed musical instrument, 1850, from Ger. Zither, from O.H.G. zitara, from L. cithara, from Gk. kithara lute (see GUITAR (Cf. guitar)) …   Etymology dictionary

  • Zither — Zither, 1) musikalisches Instrument, entstanden aus der von Amphion od. Linos erfundenen Kithara (Kitharis), welche anfänglich vier Saiten hatte, deren Zahl nachher bis acht od. neun vermehrt wurde, vgl. Lyra. Die alte Kithara wurde von dem… …   Pierer's Universal-Lexikon

  • Zither — (Cither, Schlagzither), kleines, etwa 1/2 m langes und 1/4 m breites, 5 cm hohes Saiteninstrument mit 29–42 Saiten, über einen flachen Resonanzboden gespannt. Die fünf Griffbrett (Violin ) Saiten a , a , d , g , c (Münchener Stimmung) oder a , d …   Meyers Großes Konversations-Lexikon

  • Zither — (grch. Kithara), schon im Altertum übliches Saiteninstrument, früher mit dem Plektron, jetzt mit einem Schlagring geschlagen (Schlag Z. [Tafel: Musik I, 17 u. 22]). – Vgl. Thauer (1902) …   Kleines Konversations-Lexikon

  • Zither — Zither. Dieses Instrument, dem jedenfalls unsere heutig Guitarre nachgebildet ist, findet sich schon bei den alten Griechen und Hebräern, und war mit 5 Saiten bezogen. Das unter diesem Namen noch jetzt vorkommende Instrument ist von Holz, hat… …   Damen Conversations Lexikon

  • Zither — Zither, ital. cithara. sehr altes Saiteninstrument, bestehend aus einem flachen ovalen Kasten mit Hals, auf dem das Griffbrett liegt. Die Saiten sind Drahtsaiten und werden mittelst eines Plectrums mit der rechten Hand geschlagen; die Stimmung… …   Herders Conversations-Lexikon

  • zither — ► NOUN ▪ a musical instrument consisting of a flat wooden soundbox with numerous strings stretched across it, placed horizontally and played with the fingers and a plectrum. ORIGIN German, from Greek kithara, denoting a kind of harp; related to… …   English terms dictionary

  • zither — [zith′ər, zith′ər] n. [Ger < L cithara < Gr kithara, lute] 1. any of a family of musical instruments with strings stretched across a flat soundboard and plucked, bowed, struck with mallets, etc., as the dulcimer, koto, psaltery, etc. 2. a… …   English World dictionary


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