yoga


yoga
yogic /yoh"gik/, adj.yogism, n.
/yoh"geuh/, n. (sometimes cap.)
1. a school of Hindu philosophy advocating and prescribing a course of physical and mental disciplines for attaining liberation from the material world and union of the self with the Supreme Being or ultimate principle.
2. any of the methods or disciplines prescribed, esp. a series of postures and breathing exercises practiced to achieve control of the body and mind, tranquillity, etc.
3. union of the self with the Supreme Being or ultimate principle.
[1810-20; < Skt]

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One of the six orthodox systems (darshans) of Indian philosophy, which has had widespread influence on many schools of Indian thought.

It is better known through its practical aspect than its intellectual content, which is largely based on the philosophy of Samkhya. Holding that the evolution of the world occurred in stages, Yoga attempts to reverse this order so that a person reenters his or her state of purity and consciousness. Generally, the Yoga process involves eight stages, which may require several lifetimes to pass through. The first two stages are ethical preparations emphasizing morality, cleanliness, and devotion to God. The next two stages are physical preparations that condition the body to make it supple, flexible, and healthy; the physical aspects of Yoga have been most successfully popularized in the West. The fifth stage involves control of the mind and senses to withdraw from outward objects. The remaining three stages entail the cultivation of increasingly concentrated states of awareness, which will ultimately lead to release from the cycle of rebirth. See also chakra, kundalini.

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      (Sanskrit: “Yoking,” or “Union”), one of the six orthodox systems (darshans) of Indian philosophy. Its influence has been widespread among many other schools of Indian thought. Its basic text is the Yoga-sūtras by Patañjali (c. 2nd century BC?).

      The practical aspects of Yoga play a more important part than does its intellectual content, which is largely based on the philosophy of Saṃkhyā (q.v.), with the exception that Yoga assumes the existence of God, who is the model for the aspirant to spiritual release. Yoga holds with Saṃkhyā that the achievement of spiritual liberation occurs when the self (purusha) is freed from the bondages of matter (prakriti) that have resulted because of ignorance and illusion. The Saṃkhyā view of the evolution of the world through identifiable stages leads Yoga to an attempt to reverse this order, as it were, so that a person can increasingly dephenomenalize himself until the self reenters its original state of purity and consciousness. Once the aspirant has learned to control and suppress the obscuring mental activities of his mind and has succeeded in ending his attachment to material objects, he will be able to enter samadhi—i.e., a state of deep concentration that results in a blissful, ecstatic union with the ultimate reality.

      Generally the Yoga process is described in eight stages (aṣṭāṅga-yoga, “eight-membered Yoga”). The first two stages are ethical preparations. They are yama (“restraint”), which denotes abstinence from injury (ahimsa), falsehood, stealing, lust, and avarice; and niyama (“observance”), which denotes cleanliness of body, contentment, austerity, study, and devotion to God.

      The next two stages are physical preparations. asana (“seat”), a series of exercises in physical posture, is intended to condition the aspirant's body and make it supple, flexible, and healthy. Mastery of the asanas is reckoned by one's ability to hold one of the prescribed postures for an extended period of time without involuntary movement or physical distractions. Prāṇāyāma (“breath control”) is a series of exercises intended to stabilize the rhythm of breathing in order to encourage complete respiratory relaxation.

      The fifth stage, pratyāhāra (“withdrawal”), involves control of the senses, or the ability to withdraw the attention of the senses from outward objects to the mind.

      The first five stages are called external aids to Yoga; the remaining three are purely mental or internal aids. Dharana (“holding on”) is the ability to hold and confine awareness of externals to one object for a long period of time (a common exercise is fixing the mind on an object of meditation, such as the tip of the nose or an image of the deity). Dhyana (“concentrated meditation”) is the uninterrupted contemplation of the object of meditation, beyond any memory of ego. samadhi (“self-collectedness”) is the final stage and is a precondition of attaining release from the cycle of rebirth. In this stage the meditator perceives or experiences the object of his meditation and himself as one.

      The prehistory of Yoga is not clear. The early Vedic texts speak of ecstatics, who may well have been predecessors of the later yogis (followers of Yoga). Although Yoga has been made into a separate school (darśana), its influence and many of its practices have been felt in other schools.

      In the course of time, certain stages of Yoga became ends in themselves, notably, the breathing exercises and sitting postures, as in the Yoga school of Haṭha Yoga (Hatha Yoga) (q.v.). Patañjali's Yoga is sometimes known as Rāja (“Royal”) Yoga, to distinguish it from the other schools.

      Yoga, in a less technical sense of achieving union with God, is also used, as in the epic poem the Bhagavadgītā, to distinguish the alternate paths (margas) to such a union.

      In the 20th century, the philosophy and practice of Yoga became increasingly popular in the West. The first important organization for practitioners in the United States was the Self-Realization Fellowship, founded by Paramahansa Yogananda in 1920. Some 50 years later, instruction emphasizing both the physical and spiritual benefits of Yogic techniques was available through a wide variety of sectarian Yoga organizations, nonsectarian classes, and television programs in the United States and Europe.

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Universalium. 2010.

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