Yarkand


Yarkand
/yahr kand", -kahnd"/, n.
Shache. Also, Yarkend /yahr kend"/.

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China
Chinese (Pinyin)  Shache  or  (Wade-Giles romanization)   Sha-ch'e , also spelled  Yarkant 

      oasis city, southwestern Uygur Autonomous Region of Xinjiang (Sinkiang, Uygur Autonomous Region of), far western China. It is situated in an oasis watered by the Yarkand River at the western end of the Tarim River basin, southeast of Kashgar (Kashi), at the junction of roads to Aksu to the northwest and to Hotan (Khotan) to the southeast. The roads form parts of the ancient northern and southern branches of the Silk Road through the Tarim Basin. The city comprises several separate walled units, one of which is named Shache and another Yarkand; both names have at times been used as general terms for the city as a whole and for the oasis.

      Yarkand first came to the notice of the Chinese in the latter part of the 2nd century BCE, when it was known as the kingdom of Shache, commanding the route over the lofty Pamirs. At the end of the 1st century CE, weakened by warfare with its neighbours, Yarkand was taken by Chinese armies under Ban Chao. During the Tang dynasty (618–907) it again began to emerge as an important place, after having been overshadowed by Karghalik to the south and by Kashgar to the northwest. It gained further prominence in the 12th and 13th centuries, becoming the chief base of the khanate of Chagatai (part of the Mongol empire). At the end of the 16th century Yarkand was riven by factional dissension and was eventually incorporated into the khanate of Kashgar. It was finally brought under Chinese control in the mid-18th century.

      The oasis covers some 1,240 square miles (3,210 square km) and is highly fertile. It produces a variety of grain crops, as well as cotton, hemp, beans, fruit, and mulberry leaves for the local silk industry. Around the oasis there is extensive stock rearing, primarily of camels, horses, and sheep. The towns produce many handicrafts, such as fine cotton and silk textiles, carpets, and leather goods. The population of the oasis area includes a wide variety of peoples, among them Chinese (Han), Uighurs, Iranians, and some South Asians. Pop. (2000) 88,148.

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Universalium. 2010.

Look at other dictionaries:

  • Yarkand — est une ville oasis du Xinjiang, en Chine. Sa population était de 72 000 habitants en 1990, en majorité ouïghours. C est le chef lieu du xian de Yarkand. L’oasis est arrosée par les eaux de la rivière Yarkand et couvre 3 210 km².… …   Wikipédia en Français

  • Yarkand — Yarkand, Yarkent, and Yarkant are spelling variants and may refer to: * Yarkent County * Yarkand River …   Wikipedia

  • Yarkand — Yarkand, so v.w. Jerkim …   Pierer's Universal-Lexikon

  • Yarkand — Yarkand, Stadt im chines. Turkistan, s. Jarkand …   Meyers Großes Konversations-Lexikon

  • Yarkand — Yarkand, Stadt in Ostturkestan, s. Jarkent …   Kleines Konversations-Lexikon

  • Yarkand — [yär΄känd′] another name for SHACHE …   English World dictionary

  • Yarkand — Der 1.070 km lange Jarkend (auch Jarkand bzw. Yarkand genannt) ist einer der Quellflüsse des Tarim in China (Asien). Der Fluss entsteht im äußersten Westen der Volksrepublik im autonomen Gebiet Xinjiang. Seine Quelle befindet sich im Karakorum.… …   Deutsch Wikipedia

  • Yarkand — Yarkạnd,   uigurisch Yarkạnt, Jarkẹnd, chinesisch Shache [ʃatʃe], früher Soche [ tʃe], Oasenstadt in Sinkiang, China, am Yarband, einem der Quellflüsse des Tarim, im westlichen Tarimbecken, rd. 200 000 Einwohner (in der gesamten Oase leben 940 …   Universal-Lexikon

  • Yarkand — or Yarkant geographical name river Kashmir & China flowing from Karakoram Range N & W to join the Hotan in Xinjiang Uygur forming the Tarim …   New Collegiate Dictionary

  • YARKAND —    (60), the capital or chief city of Eastern Turkestan, 100 m. SE. of Kashgar; is in the centre of a very fertile district of the vast continental basin of Central Asia, abounding also in large stores of mineral wealth; it is a great emporium of …   The Nuttall Encyclopaedia


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