Xhosa


Xhosa
/koh"seuh, -zeuh, kaw"-/, n., pl. Xhosas, (esp. collectively) Xhosa for 1.
1. a member of a Nguni people of eastern Cape Province, Republic of South Africa.
2. the Bantu language of the Xhosa.
Also, Xosa.

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People living primarily in East Cape province, South Africa.

They form part of the southern Nguni group of Bantu-speaking peoples. In the late 18th and early 19th centuries, the series of conflicts called the Kaffir ("Infidel") Wars engaged the Xhosa against the European settlers. Eventually the Xhosa were defeated and their territory annexed. Between 1959 and 1961 the Xhosa inhabited the nonindependent black states of Transkei and Ciskei created by the white South African government. In the 1960s many Xhosa became migrant labourers. Today they number some 7.8 million.

Xhosa women dancing as they return to their village from the fields.

Authenticated News International

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people
also spelled  Xosa  
 a cluster of related peoples living primarily in Eastern Cape province, South Africa, and forming part of the southern Nguni group of Bantu-speaking peoples. The main Xhosa groups are the Gcaleka, Ngika, Ndlamba, Dushane, Qayi, Ntinde, and the Gqunkhwebe (the latter being partly of Khoekhoe origin).

      In the late 18th and the 19th centuries, a series of conflicts popularly called the Cape Frontier Wars engaged the Xhosa against European settlers in the eastern frontier region of Cape Colony. The expanding Xhosa, driven southward by overpopulation and land shortage, encountered Cape colonists moving northward in search of good farmland. The struggle lasted for a century, but eventually the Xhosa were defeated by the European settlers and their territories were annexed by the Cape Colony. Europeans attached the name “ Transkei” to the Xhosa lands lying beyond the Great Kei River; those between the Great Fish and Great Kei rivers they called “ Ciskei.”

      In 1959 Transkei was administratively created by the South African government as a nonindependent black state ( Ciskei followed in 1961) designated for the Xhosa-speaking peoples. Beginning in the 1960s, a high proportion of workers left Transkei as labour migrants, going to Johannesburg and other parts of the country. This migration of workers (for the most part men) seriously disrupted Xhosa family and community life. Many Ciskei residents commuted to work in the industrial areas of East London and King William's Town, just outside the Ciskei borders. With the repeal of the apartheid system of racial separation, Transkei and Ciskei became part of Eastern Cape province in 1994.

      Many Xhosa are agriculturists who keep some cattle. They are organized into patrilineal clans (clan), each of which is associated with a tribe or chiefdom, the clan head being the tribal chief, ruling with the aid of a council of the heads of the small subclans and lineages. The Xhosa numbered about 7,300,000 in the early 21st century.

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Universalium. 2010.

Look at other dictionaries:

  • XHOSA — Incapables de s’unir face aux Sotho et aux Zoulou, refoulés par les Européens, les Xhosa ont été relégués au nord est de la Province du Cap, aux confins du Natal. Ils furent ensuite intégrés dans les bantoustans du Transkei et du Ciskei («unités… …   Encyclopédie Universelle

  • Xhosa —   [ koːsa], Xosa, Kọsa, früher Kạffern, ein in zahlreiche Stämme untergliedertes Bantuvolk aus der Sprachgruppe der Nguni in der Republik Südafrika. Neben den von allen negriden Völkern am weitesten nach Süden vorgestoßenen eigentlichen Xhosa… …   Universal-Lexikon

  • Xhosa — [kō′sä, kō′zä] n. pl. Xhosas or Xhosa 1. a member of a people living mainly in S South Africa 2. the Bantu language of this people, closely related to Zulu adj. of the Xhosas or their language or culture: Also sp. Xosa …   English World dictionary

  • Xhosa — Infobox Ethnic group group = Xhosa caption = Notable Xhosa: Nelson Mandela, Miriam Makeba, Thabo Mbeki, Desmond Tutu poptime = 7.9 million (2001 estimate) popplace = Eastern Cape: 5.4 million Western Cape: 1.1 million Gauteng: 0.7 million Free… …   Wikipedia

  • Xhosa — Cet article concerne la langue xhosa. Pour le peuple xhosa, voir Xhosa (peuple). Xhosa isiXhosa Parlée en &# …   Wikipédia en Français

  • Xhosa — Para la lengua del mismo nombre, véase Idioma xhosa. Xhosa o xosa Nelson Mandela es un famoso hablante xhosa. Población total 2001: 7,9 millones est …   Wikipedia Español

  • Xhosa — UK [ˈkɔːsə] / US [ˈkoʊsə] / US [ˈkɔsə] noun Word forms Xhosa : singular Xhosa plural Xhosas or Xhosa 1) [uncountable] an African language that people speak in South Africa 2) [countable] a member of a Bantu people of South Africa Derived word:… …   English dictionary

  • Xhosa — noun Etymology: Xhosa xhosa (as in umXhosa a Xhosa person) Date: 1801 1. a member of a Bantu speaking people of Eastern Cape province 2. a Bantu language of the Xhosas …   New Collegiate Dictionary

  • Xhosa — Der Begriff Xhosa bezeichnet ein südafrikanisches Volk, siehe Xhosa (Volk) eine Bantusprache, siehe isiXhosa Diese Seite ist eine Begriffsklärung zur Unterscheidung mehrerer mit demselben Wort bezeichneter Begriffe …   Deutsch Wikipedia

  • Xhosa — Xho|sa1 [ kousə, kɔsə ] noun 1. ) uncount an African language that people speak in South Africa 2. ) count a member of a Bantu people of South Africa Xhosa Xho|sa 2 [ kousə, kɔsə ] adjective relating to the Xhosa language, culture, or people …   Usage of the words and phrases in modern English


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