WInd


WInd
West Indian.
Also, W.Ind.

* * *

I
Movement of air relative to the surface of the Earth.

Wind is an important factor in determining and controlling climate and weather. It is also the generating force of most ocean and freshwater waves. Wind occurs because of horizontal and vertical differences in atmospheric pressure. The general pattern of winds over the Earth is known as the general circulation, and specific winds are named for the direction from which they originate (e.g., a wind blowing from west to east is a westerly). Wind speeds are often classified according to the Beaufort scale.
II
(as used in expressions)

* * *

      in climatology, the movement of air relative to the surface of the Earth. Winds play a significant role in determining and controlling climate and weather. A brief treatment of winds follows. For full treatment, see climate: Wind (climate).

      Wind occurs because of horizontal and vertical differences (gradients) in atmospheric pressure. Accordingly, the distribution of winds is closely related to that of pressure. Near the Earth's surface, winds generally flow around regions of relatively low (cyclone) and high pressure—cyclones and anticyclones (anticyclone), respectively. They rotate counterclockwise around lows in the Northern Hemisphere and clockwise around those in the Southern Hemisphere. Similarly, wind systems rotate around the centres of highs in the opposite direction.

      In the middle and upper troposphere, the pressure systems are organized in a sequence of high-pressure ridges and low-pressure troughs, rather than in the closed, roughly circular systems nearer the surface of the Earth. They have a wavelike motion and interact to form a rather complex series of ridges and troughs. The largest of the wave patterns are the so-called standing waves that have three or four ridges and a corresponding number of troughs in a broad band in middle latitudes of the Northern Hemisphere. The westerlies of the Southern Hemisphere are much less strongly affected by standing disturbances. Associated with these long standing waves are the short waves (several hundred kilometres in wavelength) called traveling waves. Such traveling waves form the upper parts of near-surface cyclones and anticyclones to which they are linked, thus guiding their movement and development.

      At high latitudes the winds are generally easterly near the ground. In low, tropical, and equatorial latitudes, the northeasterly trade winds north of the intertropical convergence zone (ICZ), or thermal equator, and the southeasterly trade winds south of the ICZ move toward the ICZ, which migrates north and south with the seasonal position of the Sun. Vertically, winds then rise and create towering cumulonimbus clouds and heavy rain on either side of the ICZ, which marks a narrow belt of near calms known as the doldrums. The winds then move poleward near the top of the troposphere before sinking again in the subtropical belts in each hemisphere. From here, winds again move toward the Equator as trade winds. These gigantic cells with overturning air in each of the hemispheres in low latitudes are known as the Hadley cells (Hadley cell). In the mid-latitudes, oppositely rotating wind systems called Ferrel cells (Ferrel cell) carry surface air poleward and upper tropospheric air toward the Hadley cells. The three-dimensional pattern of winds over the Earth, known as general circulation, is responsible for the fundamental latitudinal structure of pressure and air movement and, hence, of climates.

      On a smaller scale are the local winds, systems that are associated with specific geographic locations and reflect the influence of topographic features. The most common of these local wind systems are the sea and land breezes, mountain and valley breezes, foehn winds (also called chinook, or Santa Ana, winds), and katabatic winds. Local winds exert a pronounced influence on local climate and are themselves affected by local weather conditions.

      Wind speeds and gustiness are generally strongest by day when the heating of the ground by the Sun causes overturning of the air, the descending currents conserving the angular momentum of high-altitude winds. By night, the gustiness dies down and winds are generally lighter.

* * *


Universalium. 2010.

Synonyms:

Look at other dictionaries:

  • Wind — von etwas bekommen (kriegen): heimlich davon erfahren, eine Ahnung von etwas haben.{{ppd}}    Die Redensart stammt aus der Jägersprache. Das Wild bekommt vom Jäger Wind, d.h. ›Witterung‹; der Wind bringt seiner feinen Nase den Geruch des Jägers… …   Das Wörterbuch der Idiome

  • Wind — (w[i^]nd, in poetry and singing often w[imac]nd; 277), n. [AS. wind; akin to OS., OFries., D., & G. wind, OHG. wint, Dan. & Sw. vind, Icel. vindr, Goth winds, W. gwynt, L. ventus, Skr. v[=a]ta (cf. Gr. ah ths a blast, gale, ah^nai to breathe hard …   The Collaborative International Dictionary of English

  • wind — wind1 [wīnd] vt. wound or Rare winded, winding [ME winden < OE windan, akin to ON vinda, Ger winden < IE base * wendh , to turn, wind, twist > Arm gind, a ring] 1. a) to turn, or make revolve [to wind a crank] b) to move by or as if by… …   English World dictionary

  • Wind It Up — Single par Gwen Stefani extrait de l’album The Sweet Escape Sortie 31 octobre 2006 (Amérique du Nord) décembre 2006(monde) Enregistrement 2005 Durée 3:09 …   Wikipédia en Français

  • Wind It Up — Veröffentlichung März 1993 Länge 4:33 (Album) 3:29 (Single Edit) Genre(s) Big Beat, Breakcore Autor(en) Liam Howlett …   Deutsch Wikipedia

  • Wind — Wind, v. t. [imp. & p. p. {Wound} (wound) (rarely {Winded}); p. pr. & vb. n. {Winding}.] [OE. winden, AS. windan; akin to OS. windan, D. & G. winden, OHG. wintan, Icel. & Sw. vinda, Dan. vinde, Goth. windan (in comp.). Cf. {Wander}, {Wend}.]… …   The Collaborative International Dictionary of English

  • wind — Ⅰ. wind [1] ► NOUN 1) the perceptible natural movement of the air, especially in the form of a current blowing from a particular direction. 2) breath as needed in physical exertion, speech, playing an instrument, etc. 3) Brit. air swallowed while …   English terms dictionary

  • wind — wind, breeze, gale, hurricane, zephyr are comparable rather than synonymous terms that can all basically mean air in motion. Wind is the general term referable to any sort of natural motion whatever its degree of velocity or of force {a strong… …   New Dictionary of Synonyms

  • Wind it up — «Wind it Up» Sencillo de Gwen Stefani del álbum The Sweet Escape Formato CD, sencillo físico Descarga digital disco de vinilo Grabación 2005 Género(s) Pop …   Wikipedia Español

  • Wind — Wind: Das gemeingerm. Substantiv mhd. wint, ahd. wind, got. winds, engl. wind, schwed. vind gehört mit Entsprechungen in anderen idg. Sprachen zu der unter ↑ wehen dargestellten idg. Wurzel, vgl. z. B. tochar. A wänt »Wind«, lat. ventus »Wind« (↑ …   Das Herkunftswörterbuch

  • Wind'It — is a wind power implantation concept, developed by the French design office Elioth with the architects team Encore Heureux. Principle Wind It s principle is simple : using electricity pylons to host wind turbines. Those wind turbines would be… …   Wikipedia


Share the article and excerpts

Direct link
Do a right-click on the link above
and select “Copy Link”

We are using cookies for the best presentation of our site. Continuing to use this site, you agree with this.