Wellington


Wellington
/wel"ing teuhn/, n.
1. 1st Duke of (Arthur Wellesley) ("the Iron Duke"), 1769-1852, British general and statesman, born in Ireland: prime minister 1828-30.
3. a seaport in and the capital of New Zealand, on S North Island. 349,628.

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City (pop., 2001 prelim.: 165,945), port, and capital of New Zealand.

It is located at the southern shore of the North Island, on Port Nicholson. Founded in 1840, it became a municipality in 1853. In 1865 the capital was transferred there from Auckland. It is the financial, commercial, and transportation centre of New Zealand. Wellington produces transportation equipment, machinery, metal products, textiles, and printed materials. It is the site of the major government buildings and the headquarters of many cultural, scientific, and agricultural organizations.

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      town (“parish”), Taunton Deane district, administrative and historic county of Somerset, England, just west-southwest of Taunton. The first duke of Wellington (Wellington, Arthur Wellesley, 1st duke of, marquess of Douro, marquess of Wellington, earl of Wellington, Viscount Wellington of Talavera and of Wellington, Baron Douro or Wellesley) (Arthur Wellesley, who took his title from the town), victor of the Battle of Waterloo (1815), is commemorated by a monument (National Trust property) on the highest point of the nearby Blackdown Hill. Wellington School, at its foot, was founded in 1841. Pop. (2001) 12,845.

      town, east-central New South Wales, Australia. It lies at the confluence of the Macquarie and Bell rivers. The site, used by John Oxley (Oxley, John) as a base for exploration (1817–18), was named by him after the Duke of Wellington. A convict settlement from 1823 to 1831, it was proclaimed a town in 1846, a municipality in 1879, and a shire in 1947. In 1950 Wellington was merged with Macquarie and a portion of Cobar shires. It serves a region producing sheep, cattle, fruits, vegetables, and mushrooms. The town has flour mills and sawmills, freezing and dairy-processing works, and farm and earth-moving machinery plants. Burrendong Dam on the Macquarie and the Wellington limestone caves are close by. Pop. (2006) local government area, 8,120.

 capital city, port, and major commercial centre of New Zealand, located in the extreme south of North Island. It lies on the shores and hills surrounding Port Nicholson (Wellington Harbour), an almost landlocked bay that is ranked among the world's finest harbours. Mount Victoria rises 643 feet (196 metres) near the centre of the city. Wellington is in a fault zone and has survived several earthquakes.

      In 1839 a ship belonging to the New Zealand Company arrived with officials who were to select a site for the company's first settlement. The site chosen, at the mouth of the Hutt River, proved unsuitable, and a move was made to Lambton Harbour on the west shore. The settlement was named in 1840 in recognition of the aid given the company by Arthur Wellesley, 1st duke of Wellington (Wellington, Arthur Wellesley, 1st duke of, marquess of Douro, marquess of Wellington, earl of Wellington, Viscount Wellington of Talavera and of Wellington, Baron Douro or Wellesley). It was made a borough in 1842 and a city in 1886. In 1865 the seat of the central government was transferred there from Auckland. The city is part of the Wellington local government region.

      Wellington is the country's transportation and communications hub. Rail and road services extend from it to all parts of North Island, and ferries to Picton link the capital to South Island. The city's international airport is also the focal point of the country's internal aviation network. The harbour, serving domestic and international shipping, imports petroleum products, motor vehicles, and minerals and exports meats, wood products, dairy products, wool, and fruit. The economy is primarily service-based, with an emphasis on finance, business services, and government; Wellington is also a regional health and education centre. Tourism is important, and there is a growing film industry. Although manufacturing in the city itself has declined since the late 1980s, the region still has a printing industry and produces chemicals, plastics, and machinery. Victoria and Massey universities are in Wellington.

 Much of the city is built on land reclaimed from the bay. Notable institutions include the Parliament buildings (among them the distinctive “Beehive” building), the National Library, the City Gallery Wellington (housing contemporary art), and the New Zealand Academy of Fine Arts (featuring the work of New Zealand artists). Te Papa Tongarewa, the national museum, moved to new quarters in 1998. The zoo and botanical gardens feature local species. The Old Government Building (built in 1876) is one of the world's largest wooden structures. Wellington is the home of the Royal New Zealand Ballet and the National Symphony Orchestra. Pop. (2006) city, 179,466; (2005 est.) urban agglom., 370,000.
 

      regional council, extreme southern North Island, New Zealand. It includes the cities of Wellington (the national capital) and Lower Hutt, Upper Hutt, Porirua, and Masterton. The broad Hutt River valley, once the locale of dairy farms and market gardens, has absorbed much of Wellington city's urban expansion since the 1950s. There is still much open farmland to the north, however.

      East of the city of Wellington is the Rimutaka Range and east of that, the Wairarapa Plain. One of the earliest European-settled sections of North Island, Wairarapa (Maori: “Glistening Waters”) was pioneered in the 1840s. Fruit and vegetable, dairy, sheep, and beef cattle farming predominate. The business and administrative centre of the plain is Masterton, in the north. The western and southern boundaries of Wellington regional council consist of hilly, isolated coastland fronting the South Pacific Ocean. Area 3,143 square miles (8,140 square km). Pop. (2006) 456,654.

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Universalium. 2010.

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