WASP


WASP
/wosp/, Sometimes Disparaging and Offensive.
n.
1. a white Anglo-Saxon Protestant.
2. a member of the privileged, established white upper middle class in the U.S.
adj.
3. Waspy.
Also, Wasp.
[1955-60]
/wosp/, n.
a member of the Women's Air Force Service Pilots, an organization disbanded in 1944.

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Any of more than 20,000, usually winged, insect species in the order Hymenoptera.

The abdomen is attached to the thorax by a slender petiole, or "waist," and the female's abdomen has a formidable stinger. Most species are solitary; about 1,000 species are highly social; and some may be either social or solitary. Adults feed primarily on nectar. Most solitary wasps nest in tunnels in the ground and feed larvae with paralyzed insects or spiders. The paperlike nest of social wasps (family Vespidae) consists of chewed plant material mixed with saliva and arranged in adjacent hexagonal cells. The female lays one egg in each cell and provisions it with a macerated caterpillar. Successive generations may enlarge the nest and care for the young.

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      any stinging member of a group of insects in the order Hymenoptera.

      Wasps have biting mouthparts and antennae with 12 or 13 segments. They are normally winged and have the abdomen attached to the thorax by a slender petiole, or “waist.” Females are provided with a formidable sting, which involves use of a modified ovipositor (egg-laying structure) for piercing and venom-producing glands. Adult wasps feed primarily on nectar, but their larvae feed on insects or plant material such as pollen, provided by the female parent. There are more than 20,000 known species of wasps, the vast majority of which are solitary in habit. The social wasps are confined to about 1,000 species within the family Vespidae (superfamily Vespoidea) and include the hornets and yellow jackets. They differ from other wasp families in having their wings folded longitudinally when at rest.

      Solitary wasps are distributed in the superfamilies Bethyloidea, Scolioidea, and Sphecoidea, along with the family Pompilidae. Most species build isolated nests, which they provision with paralyzed insects or spiders. The female wasp deposits an egg in each cell of the nest, and the wasp larva hatching from that egg feeds to maturity upon the food with which its cell has been provisioned. The vast majority of solitary wasps nest in the ground, digging tunnels in the soil in which to lay their eggs. But the Sphecidae, or thread-waisted wasps (thread-waisted wasp) (superfamily Sphecoidea), contain forms of more diverse habits, with some nesting in wood, pithy plant stems, or in nests made of mud. Spider wasps (spider wasp) (Pompilidae) usually build nests in rotten wood or in rock crevices and provision them with spiders. The potter, or mason, wasps (subfamily Eumeninae) of the Vespidae build nests of mud, which are sometimes vaselike or juglike and may be found attached to twigs or other objects.

 The social wasps within the family Vespidae are among the best-known species of wasps. Most of them belong to the subfamilies Vespinae or Polistinae (paper wasp) (see photograph—>). In their societies they have a caste system consisting of one or several queens, a few drones (males), and sterile females called workers. The queen, a fertilized female, begins the colony in the spring by building a small nest and laying eggs that hatch into workers. The latter enlarge the paperlike nest, which is composed of chewed dry plant material, usually wood, that has been mixed with saliva and regurgitated. The nest consists of one or more layers of cells that are arranged vertically with the openings downward. Depending on the species, the nest may be found in cavities in the soil, in tree trunks, or hanging from leaves, branches, or the eaves of buildings.

      The most familiar social wasps in northern temperate regions are species of the genera Polistes, Vespa, or Vespula. Many are large and aggressive and are equipped with formidable stings. Some Vespula species are called yellow jackets owing to the black and yellow bands on their abdomen. Other species of both Vespula and Vespa are called hornets, which are mostly black, with yellowish markings on the face, thorax, and the tip of the abdomen.

      Four major groups of solitary wasps are parasitic and do not construct nests. These are the cuckoo wasps (cuckoo wasp) (family Chrysididae) in the superfamily Bethyloidea and the tiphiid wasps (family Tiphiidae), scoliid wasps (family Scoliidae), and velvet ants (velvet ant) (family Mutillidae) in the superfamily Scolioidea. Cuckoo wasps are mostly brilliant metallic-green or -blue in colour and have intricate sculpturing on the exoskeleton. They lay their eggs in the nests of solitary bees or wasps. The larvae hatching from those eggs feed on the bee or wasp larvae or on the food provisioned by the latter's parents. The velvet ants have bodies clothed with long thick hair of contrasting colours, often black and red. The females are wingless and antlike in appearance. Most of them are parasitic on the larvae and pupae of solitary bees and wasps. Most species of tiphiid and scoliid wasps parasitize beetle grubs that live in the soil.

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Universalium. 2010.

Look at other dictionaries:

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  • WASP-55 — Звезда Сравнительные размеры Солнца и WASP 55 …   Википедия

  • WASP-61 — Звезда Сравнительные размеры Солнца и WASP 61 …   Википедия

  • WASP-66 — Звезда Наблюдательные данные (Эпоха J2000.0) Тип Одиночная звезда Прямое восхождение …   Википедия

  • WASP-3 b — WASP 3b Экзопланета Списки экзопланет …   Википедия

  • WASP-62 — Звезда Наблюдательные данные (Эпоха J2000.0) Тип Одиночная звезда Прямое восхождение …   Википедия

  • WASP-63 — Звезда Наблюдательные данные (Эпоха J2000.0) Тип Одиночная звезда Прямое восхождение …   Википедия

  • WASP-67 — Звезда Наблюдательные данные (Эпоха J2000.0) Тип Одиночная звезда Прямое восхождение …   Википедия

  • WASP-1b — Comparación de tamaños entre Júpiter y WASP 1b. El aspecto de WASP 1b es supuesto. Descubrimiento Descubridor Camerún et al. (SuperWASP) en Sudáfrica …   Wikipedia Español

  • WASP-4b — Экзопланета Список экзопланетных систем Сравнение размера WASP 4b с Юпитером. Родительская звезда …   Википедия

  • WASP-2 — Constelación Delphinus Ascensión recta α 20h 30min 54.13s[1] Declinación δ …   Wikipedia Español


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