vowel


vowel
vowelless, adj.vowellike, adj.vowely, vowelly, adv.
/vow"euhl/, n.
1. Phonet.
a. (in English articulation) a speech sound produced without occluding, diverting, or obstructing the flow of air from the lungs (opposed to consonant).
b. (in a syllable) the sound of greatest sonority, as i in grill. Cf. consonant (def. 1b).
c. (in linguistic function) a concept empirically determined as a phonological element in structural contrast with consonant, as the /ee/ of be /bee/, we /wee/, and yeast /yeest/.
2. a letter representing or usually representing a vowel, as, in English, a, e, i, o, u, and sometimes w and y.
adj.
3. of or pertaining to a vowel.
[1275-1325; ME < OF vowel < L vocalis VOCAL]

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Speech sound in which air from the lungs passes through the mouth with minimal obstruction and without audible friction, like the i in fit.

The word also refers to a letter representing such a sound (a, e, i, o, u, and sometimes y). In articulatory phonetics (see articulation), vowels are classified by tongue and lip position; for example, high vowels like the i in machine and the u in flute are both pronounced with the tongue arched high in the mouth, but in u the lips are also rounded. Single vowel sounds are monophthongs; two vowel sounds pronounced as one syllable, like the ou in round, are diphthongs.

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      in human speech, sound in which the flow of air from the lungs passes through the mouth, which functions as a resonance chamber, with minimal obstruction and without audible friction; e.g., the i in “fit,” and the a in “pack.” Although usually produced with vibrating vocal cords, vowels may be pronounced without such vibration, resulting in a voiceless, or whispered, sound. From the viewpoint of articulatory phonetics, vowels are classified according to the position of the tongue and lips and, sometimes, according to whether or not the air is released through the nose.

      A high vowel (such as i in “machine” and u in “rule”) is pronounced with the tongue arched toward the roof of the mouth. A low vowel (such as a in “father” or “had”) is produced with the tongue relatively flat and low in the mouth and with the mouth open a little wider than for high vowels. Midvowels (such as e in “bed” and o in “pole”) have a tongue position between the extremes of high and low.

      High, middle, and low vowels are also classified according to a front-to-back dimension. A front vowel is pronounced with the highest part of the tongue pushed forward in the mouth and somewhat arched. The a in “had,” the e in “bed,” and the i in “fit” are front vowels. A back vowel—e.g., the u in “rule” and the o in “pole”—is produced with the back part of the tongue raised toward the soft palate (velum).

      The shape and position of the lips yields a third articulatory dimension by which vowels are classified. The lips may be rounded or spread, in what is called labialization.

      Additional articulatory features describing vowel articulation are “wide” and “narrow,” “tense” ( fortis) and “lax” (lenis). Wide and narrow refer to the tongue-root position. To form a narrow vowel, the tongue root is retracted toward the pharyngeal wall, and the pharynx is narrowed. To form a wide vowel, the tongue root is advanced so that the pharynx is expanded. Tense and lax are less clearly defined terms. Tense vowels are articulated with greater muscular effort, slightly higher tongue positions, and longer durations than lax vowels.

      All vowels can be divided into two main categories: diphthongs (diphthong) and monophthongs. Diphthongs are gliding vowels in the articulation of which there is a continuous transition from one position to another. Diphthongs are to be contrasted in this respect with so-called pure vowels, or monophthongs—i.e., unchanging, or steady-state, vowels. Though they are single speech sounds, diphthongs are usually represented, in a phonetic transcription of speech, by means of a pair of characters indicating the initial and final configurations of the vocal tract. Many of the vowel sounds in most dialects of English are diphthongs—e.g., the vowels of “out” and “ice,” respectively.

      Semivowels (approximant) are sounds produced in the same manner as vowels but are used and perceived as consonants. Examples include the y in “yawn” and the w in “walk.”

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Universalium. 2010.

Look at other dictionaries:

  • Vowel — Vow el, n. [F. voyelle, or an OF. form without y, L. vocalis (sc. littera), from vocalis sounding, from vox, vocis, a voice, sound. See {Vocal}.] (Phon.) A vocal, or sometimes a whispered, sound modified by resonance in the oral passage, the… …   The Collaborative International Dictionary of English

  • vowel — [vou′əl] n. [ME vowelle < MFr vouel < L vocalis (littera), vocal (letter), vowel < vox,VOICE] 1. any voiced speech sound characterized by generalized friction of the air passing in a continuous stream through the pharynx and opened mouth …   English World dictionary

  • Vowel — Vow el, a. Of or pertaining to a vowel; vocal. [1913 Webster] …   The Collaborative International Dictionary of English

  • vowel — (n.) c.1300, from O.Fr. vouel, from L. vocalis, in littera vocalis, lit. vocal letter, from vox (gen. vocis) voice (see VOICE (Cf. voice)). Vowel shift in reference to the pronunciation change between Middle and Modern English is attested from… …   Etymology dictionary

  • vowel — ► NOUN 1) a speech sound in which the mouth is open and the tongue is not touching the top of the mouth, the teeth, or the lips. 2) a letter representing such a sound, such as a, e, i, o, u. ORIGIN Old French vouel, from Latin vocalis littera… …   English terms dictionary

  • Vowel — In phonetics, a vowel is a sound in spoken language, such as English ah! IPA| [ɑː] or oh! IPA| [oʊ] , pronounced with an open vocal tract so that there is no build up of air pressure at any point above the glottis. This contrasts with consonants …   Wikipedia

  • vowel — noun ADJECTIVE ▪ long, short ▪ open, rounded ▪ back, front ▪ weak ▪ …   Collocations dictionary

  • vowel — Synonyms and related words: accented, allophone, alveolar, apical, apico alveolar, apico dental, articulated, articulation, aspiration, assimilated, assimilation, back, barytone, bilabial, broad, cacuminal, central, cerebral, check, checked,… …   Moby Thesaurus

  • vowel — I (Roget s IV) n. Syn. vocoid, open voiced sound, vowel sound, glide, diphthong, digraph; see also consonant , letter 1 . Linguistic terms for vowel sounds include: high, mid, low, open, close, front, back, central, flat, rounded, unrounded,… …   English dictionary for students

  • vowel — [[t]va͟ʊəl[/t]] vowels N COUNT A vowel is a sound such as the ones represented in writing by the letters a , e i , o and u , which you pronounce with your mouth open, allowing the air to flow through it. Compare consonant. The vowel in words like …   English dictionary


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