Voronezh


Voronezh
/veuh roh"nish/; Russ. /vu rddaw"nyish/, n.
a city in the SW Russian Federation in Europe. 887,000.

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City (pop., 2001 est.: 901,800), western Russia.

It lies along the Voronezh River above its confluence with the Don. It was founded in 1586 as a fortress. Peter I (the Great) built a naval flotilla in Voronezh for use in his campaigns against the Turks. With the agricultural development of the region, it became a centre for the grain trade. Occupied by the Germans and largely destroyed in World War II, it was rebuilt in the postwar era. It has a range of engineering, chemical, and food-processing industries. Its university was established in 1918.

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Russia
also spelled  Voronež,  

      city and administrative centre of Voronezh oblast (province), western Russia. It lies along the right bank of the Voronezh River above its confluence with the Don. The city was founded in 1586 as a fortress, later forming part of the Belgorod defensive line. Peter I the Great built his naval flotilla there for use in his campaigns against the Turkish fortress of Azov. With the intensive agricultural development of the forest-steppe, Voronezh became a major centre for the grain trade and flour milling.

      Modern Voronezh has a wide range of engineering, chemical, and food-processing industries. Power comes from a thermal electric plant and from the Novovoronezhsky atomic power station. The city has a university (evacuated there from Tartu, Estonia, in 1918) and agricultural, medical, veterinary, forestry, and teacher-training institutes. The centre of the city, with most of the administrative, cultural, and educational institutions, is laid out on a gridiron pattern that is broken only near the river by ravines in the steep bank. Industrial areas lie west of the city centre or on the low, sandy left bank. Pop. (1991 est.) 900,000.

also spelled  Voronež,  

      oblast (province), western Russia. The oblast has an area of 20,250 square miles (52,400 square km) and lies in the basin of the middle Don River, which bisects it north–south. The northeastern part of the oblast consists of the level Oka–Don Plain; west of the Don the land rises to the Central Russian Upland, which is greatly dissected by valleys and erosion gullies. The oblast lies in the forest-steppe zone, with a natural vegetation of alternating patches of oak forest and grass steppe. The greater part of the natural plant cover has disappeared owing to cultivation, since the soils are exceptionally rich. The surviving oak forest is protected in nature reserves. Plowing has caused intensive soil erosion in the oblast, and countermeasures are relatively limited. Nevertheless, the oblast is highly developed agriculturally, dominated by the cultivation of wheat, corn (maize), and other grains; it is one of the few areas of Russia that provides adequate climatic conditions for corn. Sunflowers and sugar beets are the chief industrial crops. Vegetables, especially potatoes, are important around Voronezh, the oblast headquarters, and orchards abound. Dairy and beef cattle, pigs, and sheep are kept in large numbers. Except in Voronezh city, most industry is small in scale, processing farm produce. There are some low-grade iron-ore deposits. Pop. (1991 est.) 2,474,400.

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Universalium. 2010.

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