vihara


vihara
/vi hahr"euh/, n.
1. a meeting place of Buddhist monks.
2. a Buddhist monastery.
3. (cap.) Also called Brahma Vihara. one of the four states of mind, namely love, compassion, sympathetic gladness, and equanimity, to be developed by every Buddhist.
[1875-80; < Skt vihara]

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▪ Buddhist monastery
      early type of Buddhist monastery consisting of an open court surrounded by open cells accessible through an entrance porch. The viharas in India were originally constructed to shelter the monks during the rainy season, when it became difficult for them to lead the wanderer's life. They took on a sacred character when small stupas (housing sacred relics) and images of the Buddha were installed in the central court.

      A clear idea of their plan can be obtained from examples in western India, where the viharas were often excavated into the rock cliffs. This tradition of rock-cut structures spread along the trade routes of Central Asia (as at Bamiyan, Afghanistan), leaving many splendid monuments rich in sculpture and painting (the statues in Afghanistan were destroyed in 2001 by the country's ruling Taliban).

      As the communities of monks grew, great monastic establishments (mahaviharas, “great viharas”) developed that consisted of clusters of viharas and associated stupas and temples. Renowned centres of learning, or universities, grew up at Nalanda, in present-day Bihar state, during the 5th to 12th centuries and at Nagarjunakonda, Andhra Pradesh, in the 3rd–4th centuries.

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Universalium. 2010.

Look at other dictionaries:

  • Vihara — (विहार) is Sanskrit or Pali for (Buddhist) monastery. It originally meant dwelling or refuge , such as those used by wandering monks during the rainy season. In the early decades of Buddhism the wandering monks of the Sangha had no fixed abode,… …   Wikipedia

  • Vihāra — Vihara Intérieur d un vihara indien à Kanheri, Bombay ; au fond : stupa …   Wikipédia en Français

  • Vihara — Vihara, Höhle 1 der Ajanta Höhlentempel, Ajanta, Indien …   Deutsch Wikipedia

  • vihara — ● vihara nom masculin (mot sanskrit signifiant résidence) Ensemble de logements construits, en Inde, pour abriter les moines bouddhistes. (Souvent rupestres, les cellules de ces monastères étaient ornées d un décor peint ou sculpté.) En Thaïlande …   Encyclopédie Universelle

  • Vihara —   [v , Sanskrit] der, / s, Buddhismus: Aufenthaltsort der Mönche, heute meist: Kloster. Die schlichten Mönchszellen der Vihara in Vorderindien sind meist in der Form des altindischen Gehöfts allseitig um einen Innenhof gruppiert. In der… …   Universal-Lexikon

  • Vihara — Intérieur d un vihara dans les Grottes de Kanheri, proches de Bombay ; au fond : stupa …   Wikipédia en Français

  • Vihara — Interior de un vijara en Kanjeri (Bombay); al fondo se puede observar una stupa …   Wikipedia Español

  • Vihara — Vi|ha|ra [v...] der, auch das; , s <aus sanskr. vihāra »Kloster, Erholungsstätte«> Aufenthaltsort der buddhistischen Mönche, Kloster …   Das große Fremdwörterbuch

  • vihara — f Tйcnica que consiste en difuminar los contornos de los objetos dibujados de forma gradual. Tambiйn llamada dibujo esfumado …   Diccionario de Construcción y Arquitectur

  • vihara — noun a Buddhistic monastery …   Wiktionary


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