Vientiane


Vientiane
/vyen tyahn"/, n.
a city in and the capital of Laos, on the Mekong River, in the NW part. 176,637.

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Laotian Viangchan

City (pop., 1999 est.: 534,000), capital of Laos.

It is located north of the Mekong River. Founded in the late 13th century, it was made the administrative centre of an early Laotian kingdom in the mid-16th century. In 1778 it came under Siamese (Thai) control; in 1828 it was destroyed when the Laotian king revolted against the Siamese. The French made it the capital of their colony on their takeover of the region in the 1890s; it remained the administrative centre after Laos gained independence in 1953. It is the commercial centre of the region and Laos's principal port of entry.

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Laos
also spelled  Viangchan,  
 largest city and capital of Laos, situated on a plain just northeast of the Mekong River. The city's central river port location in a country relying heavily on its rivers for transportation and its surrounding hinterland of intensive rice cultivation have made Vientiane the major economic centre of Laos. The city has a tropical monsoon climate, every month having an average daytime temperature above 80° F (27° C) and more than 80 percent of Vientiane's annual precipitation on the average falling in the five months May–September.

      The town was founded during the late 13th century, and in the mid-16th century the capital of the Lao kingdom (a state known as Lan Xang) was moved to Vientiane from its previous traditional location at Luang Prabang (now Louangphrabang). In 1778 Vientiane came under Siamese control; in 1828 it was sacked and destroyed when the subject Laotian king revolted against Siamese hegemony. From 1899 to 1953, with the exception of the Japanese occupation (1945), Vientiane was in succession the seat of the French governor and the French administrative capital.

      Vientiane still has some of its older wooden structures, despite its government offices, foreign embassies, and schools. Its modern industries include brewing, lumber processing, and the manufacture of brick, tile, textiles, cigarettes, matches, detergents, plastic bags, rubber sandals, and iron and steel. The Lao farmers of the surrounding area tend rice, corn (maize), and livestock in some of the best alluvial lowlands of Laos. Before 1975 the city was the principal stock shipping and slaughtering centre of the country. Since the shift in the country's import trade from Vietnam to Thailand, Vientiane has replaced Pakxé to the southeast as Laos's principal port of entry.

      The Sisavangvong University (founded 1958) in Vientiane has faculties of agriculture, art, education, forestry and irrigation, and medicine. Affiliated bodies include Fa-Ngum College, Lycée Vientiane, Polytechnic, and Pali and Sanskrit institutes. Ho Phakeo, the national museum, is located in the city, as are the Dongsaphangmeuk Library and the National Library.

      At Vientiane the Mekong River is navigable only by small craft; passage to the right bank and the Thai railhead of Nong Khai was solely by ferry until 1994, when a highway bridge was opened. Vientiane has an international airport, and highways link the city with Louangphrabang and Savannakhet in Laos and with Ho Chi Minh City in Vietnam. The Nam Ngum Dam north of Vientiane provides enough hydroelectric power for the surrounding areas and for export to Thailand as well. Vientiane's outstanding building is the That Luang, a stupa (temple), dating from about 1566 and restored by Lao civil servants under Prince Phetsarath during the French colonial period. Pop. (1990 est.) mun., 442,000.

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Universalium. 2010.

Look at other dictionaries:

  • Vientiane — ວຽງຈັນ Vientiane …   Deutsch Wikipedia

  • Vientiane — ວຽງຈັນ Le Pha That Luang (symbole du Laos) Administration …   Wikipédia en Français

  • VIENTIANE — Capitale administrative et principale ville du Laos, chef lieu de la province de Vientiane (14 400 km2, 442 000 hab., selon les estimations de 1990), Vientiane fut fondée sur la rive nord du moyen Mékong, à la fin du XIIIe siècle. De son rôle de… …   Encyclopédie Universelle

  • Vientiane — con una población de unos 140.000 habitantes en 1990, es la capital de Laos. El rey Setthathirath la convirtió en capital de Lan Xang en 1560. En 1707 Lan Xang se convirtió en reino independiente. En 1779 fue conquistado por Phraya Chakri,… …   Enciclopedia Universal

  • Vientiane — the capital city of ↑Laos …   Dictionary of contemporary English

  • Vientiane — → Vientián …   Diccionario panhispánico de dudas

  • Vientiane — [vyen tyän′] capital of Laos, on the Mekong River: pop. 377,000 …   English World dictionary

  • Vientiane — This article is about the city. For other administrative entities see Vientiane Prefecture and Vientiane Province. Vientiane ວຽງຈັນ   Capital City   …   Wikipedia

  • Vientiane — Vi|en|ti|ane [vjɛn tjan ]: Hauptstadt von Laos. * * * Vientiane   [vi̯ɛnti aːnə], Hauptstadt von Laos, am Mekong, 160 m über dem Meeresspiegel, (1995) 528 100 Einwohner; Sitz eines Apostolischen Vikars; Universität (1958 gegründet), medizinische… …   Universal-Lexikon

  • Vientiane — Original name in latin Vientiane Name in other language Bientian, Fanhyiengh, Gorad V enc jan, Nakhon Viangchan, V ent jan, VTE, Ventjan, Vianchan, Viang chan, Viangchan, Vien Can, Vien Chang, Vienciana, Vieng Chan, Vieng Caen, Vieng Chan, Vieng… …   Cities with a population over 1000 database


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