Venda


Venda
/ven"deuh/, n.
a self-governing Bantu territory of South Africa in the NE part: granted independence in 1979 by South Africa, but not recognized by any other country as an independent state. 513,890; 2510 sq. mi. (6500 sq. km). Cap.: Thohoyandou.

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I
Bantu-speaking people who inhabit the northeastern corner of South Africa and neighbouring Zimbabwe.

The Venda, today numbering more than 750,000, were the last of the peoples in the area to come under European control. Agriculture dominates their economy; cattle raising has increased in importance. Venda chiefs are traditionally custodians of the land, while local headmen permit household groups to occupy and work tracts of land.
II
Former black enclave, northeastern South Africa.

Located near the Zimbabwe border, it attracted the Venda people who migrated into the region in the early 1700s from what is now Zimbabwe. It was annexed to Transvaal in 1898 and was a distinct administrative unit within South Africa when the country designated it a homeland for Venda-speaking people in 1962. The territory, the capital of which was Thohoyandou, was granted partial self-government in 1973 and became an independent republic in 1979; it never received international recognition. After apartheid was abolished, Venda was reincorporated into South Africa in 1994, as part of the newly created Northern province.

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▪ former republic, Africa
      former republic (though never internationally recognized as such) and Bantustan in southern Africa. It consisted of an enclave within the Transvaal, Republic of South Africa, just south of Zimbabwe. Its capital, formerly at Sibasa, was moved to Thohoyandou when Venda was declared independent in 1979. Venda shared a boundary to the southeast with what was then the non-independent Bantustan of Gazankulu, South Africa, and to the northeast with Kruger National Park.

      The Venda people migrated into the region in the early 1700s AD from what is now Zimbabwe and established numerous ruling houses. These came in conflict with the Transvaal republic in the latter half of the 19th century resulting in a campaign against Chief Mphephu by the Transvaal government. The chief was defeated and the Venda area was annexed in 1898. Venda was a distinct administrative unit within South Africa before it became officially independent. In 1962 South Africa designated it a homeland for the Venda-speaking people, and a territorial authority was established. The territory was granted partial self-government in 1973. A legislative assembly was elected, and Patrick Mphephu became chief minister.

      On Sept. 13, 1979, South Africa proclaimed Venda an independent republic, with Mphephu as president. It was the third of South Africa's Bantustans to be granted independence in the 1970s, following Transkei (1976) and Bophuthatswana (1977). The United Nations Security Council (Security Council, United Nations) met the next week and unanimously condemned the creation of the three black republics as an attempt, on the part of South Africa, to legitimize and perpetuate apartheid. Only South Africa, Transkei, and Bophuthatswana recognized Venda's independence. Under the South African constitution that abolished the apartheid system, Venda was reincorporated into South Africa as part of the newly created Northern (now Limpopo) province in 1994.

people
also called  Bavenda,  

      a Bantu-speaking people inhabiting the region of the Republic of South Africa known from 1979 to 1994 as the Republic of Venda. The area is now part of Limpopo province, and is situated in the extreme northeastern corner of South Africa, bordering on southern Zimbabwe. The Venda have been called a “composite people” because they have historically consisted of a multiplicity of culturally different groups. Apparently the Venda have become more culturally uniform since they settled in their present location after migrating through Zimbabwe from an area farther to the northwest, and almost all now speak the Venda language.

      Much of the Venda's countryside in the south features mountains and wide valleys that receive abundant rainfall and are both densely populated and agriculturally productive. The northern area has a hot, dry climate and flat grasslands suitable for stock raising. The rugged Venda habitat was largely responsible for protecting them from invading enemies in the 19th century. Zulu warriors led by Mzilikazi, the eventual founder of the Ndebele (Matabele) people, generally met defeat in their attacks on the inaccessible mountain fortresses of the Venda. The Venda were, in fact, the last of the peoples in the area to come under European control.

      Since the era of raids more Venda villages have been situated on the plains, and individual villages no longer need to be nearly self-contained. Agriculture dominates the Venda economy. The principal crops are corn (maize), peanuts (groundnuts), beans, peas, sorghum, and vegetables, and the planting season starts around October. The Venda may have been primarily herders in the past. During the 20th century their cattle holdings—especially the herds of their chiefs—increased from a few to an appreciable number; they also keep goats, sheep, pigs, and fowl.

      The Venda chiefs are traditionally custodians of the land for their people, while local headmen permit household groups to occupy and work tracts of land. Lineages of kinsmen, with membership based on patrilineal descent, are used to reckon inheritance and succession. Cattle are given as bridewealth by a groom in a custom called lobola. Matrilineal descent is also observed by the Venda, especially in the religious practice of the ancestor cult. Ancestral spirits, including those of chiefs, are among those thought to inhabit the Venda countryside. Ralu Vhimba is the deity traditionally recognized.

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Universalium. 2010.

Look at other dictionaries:

  • venda — (Del germ. *bĭnda; cf. a. al. ant. binta, al. Binde, faja, tira). 1. f. Tira, por lo común de lienzo, gasa, etc., que sirve para ligar un miembro o para sujetar los apósitos aplicados sobre una llaga, contusión, tumor, etc. 2. Faja que, rodeada a …   Diccionario de la lengua española

  • venda — f. med. Tira o rollo de algodón, de gasa o de tejido elástico que se utilizada para envolver o sujetar una parte del cuerpo. Medical Dictionary. 2011. venda …   Diccionario médico

  • Venda — Venda, ein 1832 Fuß hoher u. höchster Gipfel der Euganeischen Berge in Venedig …   Pierer's Universal-Lexikon

  • Venda — (portug.), Kaufladen (in Brasilien) …   Meyers Großes Konversations-Lexikon

  • Venda — district de l Afrique du Sud, au N. de la prov. du Transvaal septent.; 7 460 km²; 726 000 hab.; ch. l. Thohoyandou. Anc. bantoustan (1959 1994, indépendant en 1979) …   Encyclopédie Universelle

  • VENDA — urbs Litlandiae provinc. in Livonia; vulgo Wenden. Aliter Vindow. Episcopalis facta a Sixto V. sub Archiepiscopo Gnesnensi. Ad amnem cognominem, qui paulo post in Teyderam fluv. cadit, 19. leuc. a Torpato in Africum, vix 4. a Conemburgo in… …   Hofmann J. Lexicon universale

  • venda — s. f. 1. Ato ou efeito de vender. 2. Cedência mediante um preço convencionado. 3. Entrega, traição. 4. Loja onde se vende. = TABERNA 5. Faixa com que se cobrem os olhos. 6.  [Figurado] Cegueira; obcecação. 7.  [Antigo] Laudêmio.   ‣ Etimologia:… …   Dicionário da Língua Portuguesa

  • Venda — Pour les articles homonymes, voir Venda (homonymie). Venda 1979 – 1994 …   Wikipédia en Français

  • Venda — Infobox Former Country native name = Venda conventional long name = Republic of Venda common name = Venda continent = Africa region = Southern Africa country = South Africa status = Bantustan empire = event start = Self government year start =… …   Wikipedia

  • Venda — Flagge von Venda 1979 bis 1994 Lage Vendas in Südafrika Venda war ein Homeland in Südafrika …   Deutsch Wikipedia


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