vena cava


vena cava
/vee"neuh kay"veuh/, pl. venae cavae /vee"nee kay"vee/. Anat.
either of two large veins discharging blood into the right atrium of the heart, one (superior vena cava or precava) conveying blood from the head, chest, and upper extremities and the other (inferior vena cava or postcava) conveying blood from all parts below the diaphragm. See diag. under heart.
[1590-1600; < L vena cava hollow vein]

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Either of two major veins that deliver oxygen-depleted blood to the right side of the heart.

The superior vena cava drains the upper body, and the inferior vena cava drains the lower body. See also cardiovascular system, circulation.

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Introduction

      in air-breathing vertebrates, including humans, either of two major trunks, the anterior and posterior venae cavae, that deliver oxygen-depleted blood to the right side of the heart. The anterior vena cava, also known as the precava, drains the head end of the body, while the posterior vena cava, or postcava, drains the tail, or rear, end. In humans these veins are respectively called the superior and inferior venae cavae. Whereas many mammals, including humans, have only one anterior vena cava, other animals have two.

Superior vena cava.
      Not far below the collarbone and in back of the right side of the breastbone, two large veins, the right and left brachiocephalic, join to form the superior vena cava. The brachiocephalic veins, as their name implies—being formed from the Greek words for “arm” and “head”—carry blood that has been collected from the head and neck and the arms; they also drain blood from much of the upper half of the body, including the upper part of the spine and the upper chest wall. A large vein, the azygos, which receives oxygen-poor blood from the chest wall and the bronchi, opens into the superior vena cava close to the point at which the latter passes through the pericardium, the sac that encloses the heart. The superior vena cava extends down about 7 cm (2.7 inches) before it opens into the right upper chamber—the right atrium of the heart. There is no valve at the heart opening.

Inferior vena cava.
      The inferior vena cava is formed by the coming together of the two major veins from the legs, the common iliac veins, at the level of the fifth lumbar vertebra, just below the small of the back. Unlike the superior vena cava, it has a substantial number of tributaries between its point of origin and its terminus at the heart. These include the veins that collect blood from the muscles and coverings of the loins and from the walls of the abdomen, from the reproductive organs, from the kidneys, and from the liver. In its course to the heart the inferior vena cava ascends close to the backbone; passes the liver, in the dorsal surface of which it forms a groove; enters the chest through an opening in the diaphragm; and empties into the right atrium of the heart at a non-valve opening below the point of entry for the superior vena cava.

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Universalium. 2010.

Look at other dictionaries:

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  • vena cava — cava, vena anat. Cada uno de los dos troncos venosos que recogen la sangre procedente de las extremidades superiores, cabeza y del tórax (vena cava superior) y de los órganos del abdomen y de las extremidades inferiores (vena cava inferior) para… …   Diccionario médico

  • Vena cava — Vena Ve na, n.; pl. {Ven[ae]}. [L. See {Vein}.] A vein. [1913 Webster] {Vena cava}; pl. {Ven[ae] cav[ae]}. [L., literally, hollow vein.] (Anat.) Any one of the great systemic veins connected directly with the heart. {Vena contracta}. [L.,… …   The Collaborative International Dictionary of English

  • vena cava — Medical Latin, from L. vena vein (see VEIN (Cf. vein)) + cava, from cavus hollow (see CAVE (Cf. cave) (n.)) …   Etymology dictionary

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  • vena cava — n. (Medicine) either of two main veins that carry blood to the right atrium of the heart; superior vena cava or the inferior vena cava …   English contemporary dictionary

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