/vahr"neuh/, n.a seaport in NE Bulgaria, on the Black Sea. 186,591. Formerly, Stalin.
* * *Founded as Odessus by Milesian Greeks in the 6th century BC, it later was Thracian, Macedonian, and Roman. In AD 681 it became part of the first Bulgarian empire (с 679–1018) and was named Varna. It came under Ottoman domination in 1391. In 1444 it was the scene of a battle between Turkish and Hungarian armies in which Władysław III, king of Poland and Hungary, was killed. Varna was ceded to Bulgaria by the 1878 Treaty of Berlin (see Congress of Berlin). It is an important administrative, economic, cultural, and resort centre. Shipbuilding and manufacturing are important industries.
* * *▪ Bulgariaalso spelled Warna,seaport and third largest city in Bulgaria. Lying on the north shore of Varna Bay on the Black Sea coast, the city is sheltered by the Dobrudzhansko plateau, which rises to more than 1,000 feet (300 m) above sea level. A narrow canal (1907) links Varna Lake—a drowned valley into which the Provadiyska River flows—to the Black Sea. The city is an important administrative, economic, cultural, and resort centre. It is a modern city, with wide, tree-lined boulevards, a fine park on the waterfront, and spacious beaches. Along the coast north of Varna are several popular resort towns, including Druzhba, Zlatni Pyassŭtsi (“Golden Sands”), Albena, and Balchik, the last once the summer retreat of Romanian royalty and aristocracy.Varna was founded as Odessus by Milesian Greeks in the 6th century BC; later it was Thracian, Macedonian, and Roman. In AD 681 it became part of the First Bulgarian empire (c. 679–1018) and was named Varna. During the reign (1218) of Ivan Asen II, it became a thriving centre of trade with Genoa, Venice, and Dubrovnik. After falling under Ottoman domination in 1391, it continued to grow in importance. In 1444, in a pitched battle fought nearby, the Turkish armies of Murad II routed the armies of the last Christian Crusade against the Turks in the Balkans, defeating the Crusaders, who were led by King Władysław III Warneńczyk of Poland.The Russians captured Varna in 1828 during the war for the liberation of Greece, but, when they left, the city reverted to the Turks. In 1854 Varna became a base for Anglo-French troops operating against Sevastopol during the Crimean War. It was liberated from the Turks in 1878 and ceded to Bulgaria by the Treaty of Berlin (Berlin, Congress of). After the building of the Ruse-Varna railway in 1866 and the rail link to Sofia in 1899, the town expanded further. A modern harbour was constructed in 1906.The city has regular domestic airline services and, in the summer, international flights. Regular boat and bus services connect the Black Sea towns. Much of Bulgaria's maritime and river transport passes through Varna's harbour, which accommodates vessels up to 20,000 tons. Major export items are livestock, grain, and processed foodstuffs. Industries include flour milling, boatbuilding, and manufacturing. Varna is major seaside resort.The city has several universities, a naval academy, an oceanography and fishery-research institute, a medical school, museums, a theatre, an opera house, and an art gallery. The 4th-century Aladzha Monastery, one of the earliest Bulgarian monasteries, overlooks the city from the north; its cells and chapel are carved out of the rock. A 5th/6th-century basilica is a reminder of an ancient Genoese colony. Between 1949 and 1956 Varna was renamed Stalin. Pop. (2004 est.) 312,026.
* * *
Look at other dictionaries:
VARNA — Grand port sur la mer Noire, centre universitaire et troisième ville de Bulgarie, Varna (320 600 hab. en 1991) est devenue un des plus grands centres industriels du pays. Aux industries alimentaires et textiles, aux usines de montage de machines… … Encyclopédie Universelle
Varna — puede referirse a: Lugares Varna, ciudad del este de Bulgaria, situada a orillas del mar Negro. Varna, una de las provincias de Bulgaria. Varna (en alemán Vahrn), municipio italiano perteneciente a la Provincia Autónoma de Bolzano. Hinduismo… … Wikipedia Español
varna — Varna (color) is the Vedic word for social class, in the class scheme found in Rig Veda X. 90. There the divine being is said to have offered himself in sacrifice to create reality. It is said that his mouth became the BRAHMIN, or priestly… … Encyclopedia of Hinduism
Varna — (Sanskrit, f., वर्ण, varṇa, wörtl. „Farbe“, Kaste) ist der wichtigste Begriff für Kaste im indischen Kastensystem. Die ursprüngliche Bedeutung von Varna, nämlich Farbe, hat sich indirekt erhalten, indem jede der vier Hauptkasten mit einer Farbe… … Deutsch Wikipedia
VARNA — VARNA, major seaport on the Black Sea coast of Bulgaria; ancient Odessus; called Stalin 1949–1956). During the 1880s there were 300 Jews in Varna. The organization of the community was made possible by the Tedeschi brothers. In 1919 there were… … Encyclopedia of Judaism
Varna — Varna, IL U.S. village in Illinois Population (2000): 436 Housing Units (2000): 190 Land area (2000): 0.292962 sq. miles (0.758768 sq. km) Water area (2000): 0.000000 sq. miles (0.000000 sq. km) Total area (2000): 0.292962 sq. miles (0.758768 sq … StarDict's U.S. Gazetteer Places
Varna, IL — U.S. village in Illinois Population (2000): 436 Housing Units (2000): 190 Land area (2000): 0.292962 sq. miles (0.758768 sq. km) Water area (2000): 0.000000 sq. miles (0.000000 sq. km) Total area (2000): 0.292962 sq. miles (0.758768 sq. km) FIPS… … StarDict's U.S. Gazetteer Places
varna — [vur′nə] n. [Hindi varṇa, color < Sans, orig. prob. covering < IE base * wer , to close, cover > WEIR] CASTE (sense 1) … English World dictionary
Varna — Varna, Stadt u. Hauptort des gleichnamigen Liwa im türkischen Ejalet Silistria, am Schwarzen Meere u. am Dawno, welcher hier in die Bai von V. mündet; V. ist stark befestigt u. hat eine Citadelle; es hat eine wenig gesicherte Rhede, Quarantäne,… … Pierer's Universal-Lexikon
Varna — Varna, Stadt, s. Warna … Meyers Großes Konversations-Lexikon
Varna — (Warna), das alte Odessos, Hafenstadt und Hauptort des bulgar. Kr. V. (9031 qkm, 1901: 286.184 E.), am Schwarzen Meer, 34.922 E., neuer Hafen; bis 1878 türk. Festung … Kleines Konversations-Lexikon