Valence


Valence
/vann lahonns"/, n.
a city in and the capital of Drôme, in SE France. 70,307.

* * *

Number of bonds (see bonding) an atom can form.

Hydrogen (H) always has valence 1, so other elements' valences equal the number of hydrogen atoms they combine with. Thus, oxygen (O) has valence 2, as in water (H2O); nitrogen (N) has valence 3, as in ammonia (NH3); and chlorine (Cl) has valence 1, as in hydrochloric acid (HCl). The valence depends on the number of unpaired electrons in the outermost (and, in transition elements, the next) shell of the atom's structure. The sharing of the unpaired (valence) electrons in a bond mimics the stable configuration of the noble gases, whose outer shells are full. Elements that can achieve stable configurations by various combinations have more than one valence.

* * *

France
      town, capital of Drôme département, Rhône-Alpes région, southeastern France. Valence lies on the left bank of the Rhône River and is connected by road to Lyon and Grenoble.

      Built on a succession of terraces bordering the Rhône, the town is dominated by the ancient Cathedral of Saint-Apollinaire, which was consecrated by Pope Urban II in 1095 and completed early in the 12th century. Damage done to the cathedral during the Wars of Religion (1569–98) was repaired in the 17th century. The Champ de Mars, a vast esplanade south of the cathedral, offers a fine view of the Rhône River valley. Valence probably became a bishopric in the 4th century and was ruled by its bishops until Louis XI in 1450 persuaded them to give up their temporal power in exchange for royal protection and a university (suppressed after the French Revolution).

      Valence is an important administrative and service centre, as well as a commercial centre for the fruit and vegetable products of the Rhône River valley. The town's industries include metallurgy and the manufacture of electrical equipment, electronics, textiles, and jewelry. Its industry has merged with that of Lyon and Grenoble. Valence has an industrial port on the Rhône. Pop. (1999) 64,260; (2005 est.) 64,900.

* * *


Universalium. 2010.

Look at other dictionaries:

  • VALENCE — À toute représentation de la matière qui la suppose grenue, se rattachent deux genres d’intuitions, l’une privilégiant les formes, l’autre les forces. On peut, en effet, imaginer sous le mode de l’intensité les interactions entre les particules… …   Encyclopédie Universelle

  • Valence CF — Valencia Club de Fútbol Généralités Surnom(s) …   Wikipédia en Français

  • Valence FC — Valence CF Valencia Club de Fútbol Généralités Surnom(s) …   Wikipédia en Français

  • Valence — may refer to:In molecules, atoms, or subatomic particles* Valence (chemistry) * Valence bond theory in chemistry * Valence shell in chemistry * Valence band in physics * Valence quarks (see quark model) in particle physics In other sciences*… …   Wikipedia

  • Valence — Valence …   Deutsch Wikipedia

  • Valence — puede referirse a varias localidades de Francia: Valence, comuna francesa y prefectura del departamento de Drôme; llamada también Valence sur Rhône y antiguamente en español Valencia de Francia. Valence, comuna francesa del departamento de… …   Wikipedia Español

  • Valence HB — Valence Handball Généralités …   Wikipédia en Français

  • VALENCE — VALENCE, chief town of the department of Dôme, S.E. France, part of the ancient province of Dauphiné. The establishment of the Jewish community in Valence does not go back earlier than 1323; however, the decision of the council held in the town… …   Encyclopedia of Judaism

  • Valence — Va lence, n. [From L. valens, entis, p. pr. of valere to have power, to be strong. See {Valiant}.] (Chem.) The degree of combining power of an atom (or radical) as shown by the number of atoms of hydrogen (or of other monads, as chlorine, sodium …   The Collaborative International Dictionary of English

  • valence — n. pl. valencies [vā′ləns] n. [LL valentia, worth, capacity < L, vigor < valens, prp. of valere, to be strong: see VALUE] Chem. 1. the capacity of an element or radical to combine with another to form molecules, as measured by the number of …   English World dictionary

  • Valence —   [va lãs], Stadt in Südfrankreich, Verwaltungssitz des Départements Drôme, an der mittleren Rhône unterhalb der Isèremündung, 63 400 Einwohner; Bischofssitz; Kunstmuseum; landwirtschaftliches Handelszentrum in einem Obstbaugebiet; Maschinen und… …   Universal-Lexikon


Share the article and excerpts

Direct link
Do a right-click on the link above
and select “Copy Link”

We are using cookies for the best presentation of our site. Continuing to use this site, you agree with this.